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52 terms

Water Resources Exam I

STUDY
PLAY
Properties of Water
1. Density - equal to 1 at 4 degrees C
2. Dipolar/Universal Solvent
3. 3 Natural Phases
Quanat
Underground water delivery system
Aqueduct
Gravity driven water delivery system above ground
Ancient water collection methods
1. Shadouf
2. Tabour
3. Animal track with water wheel
Driving mechanisms for hydrologic cycle
1. Gravity
2. Sun (changes phase of water)
3. Precipitation & Extreme Precipitation
4. Virga
Virga
Rainwater that evaporates before it reaches the ground
Wetland functions
1. Improve water quality
2. Store water (flood control)
Sublimation
solid to gas
Transpiration
plants release water into the atmosphere
Reason for season change
tilt of the Earth's axis
Water Cycle
1. Evaporation
2. Precipitation
3. Runoff
4. Transpiration
5. Condensation
Thalweg
Imaginary line that connects the deepest parts of a river channel
Hyporheic Zone
Zone beneath a river
Braided Streams
Large sediment load
Delta
alluvial fan in an open water body. Forms from sediment transported by a stream
Levee
makes water move faster, cannot erode the bank
Effluent stream
Gaining from groundwater. Dry climates
Influent stream
Losing to groundwater. Temperate climates
Ephemeral stream
result of a storm event. very short lived.
Intermittent stream
flow continues for a time after a storm event
Oligotropic Lake
Clear, deep, low nutrients, little life
Mesotrophic Lake
between oligotrophic and eutrophic stages
Eutrophic
full of nutrients, a lot of life, low oxygen
Littoral zone
sunlight can penetrate
Profundal zone
anoxic
Temp at which H2O is MOST DENSE
4 C
Overland Flow
Q=CIA
Stream Flow
Q=AV
Flood Frequency
R=(n+1)/m
Factors Affecting Soil Creation
1. Topography/Slope
2. Bedrock
3. Drainage
4. Climate
5. Time
Regolith
unconsolidated material
Soil
unconsolidated material + organic matter
Groundwater
water in zone of saturation
Subsurface water
groundwater + any other water below surface
Porosity (%)
(volume of voids/total volume)*100
ALSO =specific yield + specific retention
Aquifer
geological formation that is capable of producing a good quantity of H2O economically
Aquiclude
Granite
Aqutard
Clay
Perched Aquifer
Above aquiclude or aquitard
Confined Aquifer
has aquiclude or aquitard above it. AKA Artesian
Potentiometric Surface
potential GW table in a confined aquifer
Glacial Aquifer System
outwash/till
Relatively impermeable due to sand/silt/clay combo
Alluvial Aquifer System
Sediment deposited by running water
Good Aquifer
Igneous/Metamorphic Rock Aquifer System
Water can only come from fractures
UNLESS it is volcanic tuff or vasicular basalt and pores are interconnected
Hydraulic Conductivity
the rate of flow of a fluid through a porous material (length/time)
Hydraulic Gradient
slope (length^2/time)
High Stoarativity
High productivity of system
Transmissivity
aquifer's ability to transmit groundwater. T=Kb, where b=saturated thickness of an aquifer
Darcy's Law
Q=KA(dh/dl)
where A is the cross sectional area
Darcy Velocity (q)
q = K(dh/dl)
LOWER than Seepage
Average Linear Velocity/Seepage (Vs)
Vs= (K(dh/dl))/ne = q(dh/dl) = q/ne
HIGHER than Darcy Velocity
Stream Depletion Factor (sdf)
sdf = a^2*(S/T)
S= specific yield
a = distance of the well from the stream