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Properties of Water

1. Density - equal to 1 at 4 degrees C
2. Dipolar/Universal Solvent
3. 3 Natural Phases


Underground water delivery system


Gravity driven water delivery system above ground

Ancient water collection methods

1. Shadouf
2. Tabour
3. Animal track with water wheel

Driving mechanisms for hydrologic cycle

1. Gravity
2. Sun (changes phase of water)
3. Precipitation & Extreme Precipitation
4. Virga


Rainwater that evaporates before it reaches the ground

Wetland functions

1. Improve water quality
2. Store water (flood control)


solid to gas


plants release water into the atmosphere

Reason for season change

tilt of the Earth's axis

Water Cycle

1. Evaporation
2. Precipitation
3. Runoff
4. Transpiration
5. Condensation


Imaginary line that connects the deepest parts of a river channel

Hyporheic Zone

Zone beneath a river

Braided Streams

Large sediment load


alluvial fan in an open water body. Forms from sediment transported by a stream


makes water move faster, cannot erode the bank

Effluent stream

Gaining from groundwater. Dry climates

Influent stream

Losing to groundwater. Temperate climates

Ephemeral stream

result of a storm event. very short lived.

Intermittent stream

flow continues for a time after a storm event

Oligotropic Lake

Clear, deep, low nutrients, little life

Mesotrophic Lake

between oligotrophic and eutrophic stages


full of nutrients, a lot of life, low oxygen

Littoral zone

sunlight can penetrate

Profundal zone


Temp at which H2O is MOST DENSE

4 C

Overland Flow


Stream Flow


Flood Frequency


Factors Affecting Soil Creation

1. Topography/Slope
2. Bedrock
3. Drainage
4. Climate
5. Time


unconsolidated material


unconsolidated material + organic matter


water in zone of saturation

Subsurface water

groundwater + any other water below surface

Porosity (%)

(volume of voids/total volume)*100
ALSO =specific yield + specific retention


geological formation that is capable of producing a good quantity of H2O economically





Perched Aquifer

Above aquiclude or aquitard

Confined Aquifer

has aquiclude or aquitard above it. AKA Artesian

Potentiometric Surface

potential GW table in a confined aquifer

Glacial Aquifer System

Relatively impermeable due to sand/silt/clay combo

Alluvial Aquifer System

Sediment deposited by running water
Good Aquifer

Igneous/Metamorphic Rock Aquifer System

Water can only come from fractures
UNLESS it is volcanic tuff or vasicular basalt and pores are interconnected

Hydraulic Conductivity

the rate of flow of a fluid through a porous material (length/time)

Hydraulic Gradient

slope (length^2/time)

High Stoarativity

High productivity of system


aquifer's ability to transmit groundwater. T=Kb, where b=saturated thickness of an aquifer

Darcy's Law

where A is the cross sectional area

Darcy Velocity (q)

q = K(dh/dl)
LOWER than Seepage

Average Linear Velocity/Seepage (Vs)

Vs= (K(dh/dl))/ne = q(dh/dl) = q/ne
HIGHER than Darcy Velocity

Stream Depletion Factor (sdf)

sdf = a^2*(S/T)
S= specific yield
a = distance of the well from the stream

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