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Nutrition Final Guide
Terms in this set (80)
> 100 mg major and < 100 mg trace
How many mg per day are needed for Major Minerals
and Trace Minerals
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sulfur are __________
Iron, Iodine, Selenium, and zinc
List the trace minerals
facilitate and catalyze chemical reactions
How do minerals act as cofactors?
The functions of minerals
Parts of enzymes and hormones, participate in chemical reactions, transmit nerve impulses, maintain ﬂuid balance, and support the immune system
Which nutrients are co-enzymes
Deficiency, Increased need, and presence of other vitamins
Bioavailability will be INCREASED in times of ...
Bioavailability will be DECREASED in the presence of ________
Between vitamins and minerals, which is more easily destroyed
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
How much calcium is in bones and teeth
1% in body cells and fluids
Where is the remaining calcium found
Interference with iron absorption
List the problems that too much calcium intake can cause
Is the skeleton is inert or is it an active organ.
Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorus
List the minerals important to the skeletal system
Blood levels of calcium are closely controlled through a process called __________
When bone is broken down and rebuilt to maintain blood calcium what is the name given to this?
Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Vitamin K
List the nutrients important in bone health
Because they are high in oxalates which binds minerals.
Why do spinach and beet greens have low bioavailability of calcium?
Dairy foods, leafy greens, fortified foods, and sardines
List some food sources high in calcium
35 years old
State at what age is peak bone density reached?
loss of estrogen equals greater imbalance, more breakdown, and less bone formation
State how menopause affect bone density
Can men be at risk for osteoporosis
•Nerve impulse conduction
•Maintaining heart rhythm
List the functions of magnesium
What is the % of American adults who do not meet magnesium needs?
List risk factors for deficiency
State an overlooked cause for heart arrythmia? Notes.
What is considered a very large dose of magnesium
Impaired renal function or kidney failure
List toxicity risk of large doses of magnesium
Involved in energy metabolism
Regulates many enzymes
Helps maintain acid-base balance
List the functions of Phosphorous
we have many food sources of
Why is Phosphorus deficiency rare?
Increased blood levels bone loss, cardiovascular disease
State Phosphorus toxicity concerns
How much salt do you need per day?
State the effects of excess sodium intake
Potassium May counter effects of excess sodium on blood pressure
How might potassium help with blood pressure?
Reduced insulin production
List the symptoms of potassium deficiency
State the % of Potassium (RDA) allowable in over the counter supplements
Low heart rate
Abnormal heart rhythm
List the symptoms of potassium toxicity?
< 100 mg
State the amount of mg/day required for trace minerals
What mineral are brazil nuts high in?
Form of the food
List the factors that influence bioavailability
Severely higher rates of Goiters in the northern United States
Explain what the meaning of the goiter belt is?
Iodine deficiency causing goiter, swelling of the thyroid gland
What were the consequences of the goiter belt?
Foods from the sea, such as ﬁsh, shellﬁsh, and plants
List naturally occurring sources of Iodine.
Only 15% of daily salt intake comes from iodized table salt
State why iodine is one of the most important public health issues globally?
Milk and processed grain products
In addition to naturally occurring sources of iodine list other important sources of iodine.
Slow metabolic rate
Besides Goiter, List the other conditions associated with iodine deficiency
It can lead to mental retardation, deafness, stunted growth, and other abnormalities
What is concerning about a mild iodine deficiency
Twice as much
How much more iodine does a pregnant woman need compared to non pregnant?
It lowers IQ
What does iodine deficiency have to do with IQ
State the leading cause of preventable mental retardation worldwide
lower intelligence, poorer educatability
How does mild iodine deficiency effect intelligence in children and the 'teachability' of children
thyroid related deaths
What is the effect of sudden iodine supplementation in people who are deficient in iodine
Pregnant women tend to have iodine deficiency
State a trend over the past several years regarding iodine that is of concern
Use Iodized salt
What is the easiest way to ensure adequate iodine intake?
Development of Goiters
State the effect on the thyroid of excessive iodine
rely on bread and grains and not much meat, seafood or milk
Which type of diets are high in phytates?
Phytates bind to zinc and prevent proper absorption
State the effect of phytates on zinc
Impaired immune function
Appetite loss and weight loss
Delayed sexual maturation
List the effects of zinc deficiency
Alcoholics, vegetarians, and elderly
Who is at greatest risk of Zn deficiency?
How well does the body store zinc?
Twice as much
How much more Zinc do vegetarians need compared to non vegetarians?
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
List the effects of Zinc toxicity
State the most abundant trace mineral in the body
What is heme iron/where is it found in dietary sources?
Fruits, veggies, and grains
What is non heme/where is it found in dietary sources?
iron absorption, storage, release, and transport
Explain how iron balance is regulated in the body
How much iron do healthy individuals usually absorb?
What is the main form of iron in our body?
Hemoglobin is made up of four units, each unit contains one heme group, and one protein chain
Describe the structure of hemoglobin
They pick up oxygen from the lungs and release it into the tissue
State a primary task of hemoglobin
Myoglobin is one unit not 4
Explain the difference btw hemoglobin and myoglobin
Twice as much
How much more iron do vegans and vegetarians require compared to non vegetarians
Adults exp nausea and dizziness and kids die
Describe the toxicity effects of iron on adults and the risk for children
What is the term for iron deficiency anemia
Children, pregnant, and menstruating's women
State who is at risk for iron deficiency anemia
As many as ____ of the world's population may suffer from iron deﬁciency anemia.
Explain how iron deficiency anemia develops
Iron is lost in the sweat
State why athletes may be at risk of Iron deficiency anemia
How much more iron do athletes need compared to non athletes?
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