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CSD Section 3 Test
CSD 108 Section 3 Test
Terms in this set (88)
Disorders of Articulation
Inability to correctly produce one or more speech sounds of the language; Severity of the disorder relates directly to number of sounds misarticulated.
How clear the speech is.
Screening Articulation Test
Use of limited number of sounds that are difficult to articulate to determine what portion of large numbers of children will require further testing.
Determination of the manner of production of misarticulated speech sounds (tongue deviation, tongue tip and/or lip immobility, lack of voicing).
Normal Developmental Sequence
Those phonemes which are acquired earlier by normal children.
A disorder of rhythm; occurs when the forward flow of speech is interrupted abnormally by repetitions or prolongations of a sound, syllable, or articulatory posture, or by avoidance and struggle behaviors.
Causes of Disorders of Articulation
Hearing Loss, Auditory Memory Span, Phonetic Discrimination, Stimulability
Child must learn to identify the standard phoneme-the target for treatment.
Error Production Recognition
Child must recognize his error production of the phoneme and compare it with the standard phoneme production-Phonetic Discrimination
Standard Phoneme Production
Child must learn to produce the standard phoneme at will, in words, phrases, and sentences.
Child must learn to use the standard phoneme is spontaneous speech of all kinds.
Stuttering is in the "mother's" ear; smart parents are more likely to have kids who stutter.
Individual has a desire to speak, but there is a counter-pressure involving fear of the consequences.
Cerebral Dominance Theory
One of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain has to be in control of the other for normal speech to occur.
Ability to use both hands.
Stuttering is caused by poorly timed neuro-impulses to the speech mechanism.
Stuttering is due to the slow development of myelin (nerve insulator) in some individuals; boys mature more slowly than females and are more likely to stutter.
Delayed Auditory Feedback
The stutterer hears his own speech only after a split second delay.
The biggest determiner of therapy success.
A physician who uses specialized techniques to determine the medical status of a patient's ears. Uses medication and/or surgery for treatment.
Trained to perform hearing testing (pure tone/speech audiometry) and auditory rehabilitation.
8th Cranial Nerve
Connects inner ear complex to the brain.
Part of brain that has one-to-tone relationship with the hair cells of the inner ear complex (tonotopic representation)
Part of brain that provides meaning of the auditory signals that reach the brain (signal semantic interpretation).
Microphone (hearing aid)
For sound pickup
Amplifier (hearing aid)
For increasing the power of the original signal
Receiver (hearing aid)
For sending the amplified acoustic signal to the ear drum
Part of outer ear that one can see
Cone shaped Tympanic membrane
Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup-middle ear bones; stirrup foot plates is inserted into the oval window of the cochlea.
Tensor Tympani and Stapedius
Muscles in middle ear that stiffen ossicular chain to protect inner ear mechanism.
Cochela which houses the Organ of Corti; also has to do with sense of balance. Cochlea is divided into 3 chambers (scala vestibule, scala media, scala tympani) and filled with fluids called perilymph and endolymph.
Organ of Corti
Hair cells lying on top of basilar membrane and underneath tectoral membrane.
Noise Induced Hearing Loss
Gradual loss of hearing due to exposure to loud sound over an extended period of time.
Sudden loss of hearing due to exposure to an impact sound such as an explosion.
Eczema, inflammation, dermal infections, which cause swelling of external ear canal.
Otomycosis (Swimmer's ear)
A fungus growth, causing itching in the ear canal.
Infection of the middle ear.
Serous Otitus Medias
Middle ear develops fluid buildup as a result of infection.
Chronic Otitus Media
Continuous middle ear infection over a long period of time.
Hereditary Factors (Deafness)
Hearing loss seems to run in families. Deaf people have a greater tendency to have deaf offspring.
Speech Reception Threshold
Use two-syllable words called spondees. Present them to the subject until you find that intensity level where the subject can repeat 50% of words correctly.
Use single syllable phonetically balanced words which are repeated 40dB above the subject's Speech Reception Threshold. The percentage of words that the subject can write down correctly are an indication of the subject's ability to understand speech at a comfortable listening level.
Use of conversational speech at high intensity levels to determine where a subject begins to feel "pain." The need to discover an individual's Tolerance Level has to do to with fitting of hearing aids. You do not want to put a hearing aid on someone that will routinely exceed their tolerance level.
Petrous portion houses outer, middle, and inner ears. Houses Peripheral Auditory Mechanism.
Spongy bone growth which fixates the stapes in the oval window.
Hearing loss due to advancing age. A slow process occurring over time.
A person with a hearing loss of 90dB or more in both ears. Cannot rely on hearing for communication purposes.
Severe Hearing Problem
Hearing loss of 70-85dB in both ears. Often resemble the deaf. Can barely hear sound. "Borderline Deaf."
Moderate Hearing Problem
Hearing loss of 50-70dB in both ears. Can hear if speaker shouts. Language and vocabulary somewhat limited. Many articulation errors and voice deviations.
Mild Hearing Problems
Hearing loss of 30-50dB in both ears. Fairly normal speech and can understand normal conversation in quiet environment. Might have trouble in classroom
Tricks to start the speech attempt after postponement has become painfully long; eye blink, gestures, body jerks, racing through a sentence to leap over the feared word, starter phrases, taking deep breaths before each speech attempt.
Tricks used to minimize word fears (distractions); constant laughing while talking, sing-song style or monotone, whispered speech.
Stutter's name; question words; all words beginning with a particular sound [f or s]; long words.
Attempt is to alter an environment that might be hostile. Parents might be punishing the stuttering behavior as a way of compensating for their own fears,anxieties, and frustrations. Group counseling can be helpful with both parents involved.
A part of all stuttering therapy. Provides ventilation of emotion and an opportunity to explore new ways of coping with stress. Requires a highly permissive clinician who will let the stutterer verbalize his feelings and perceptions at deeper and deeper levels. These verbalizations will hopefully lead to insights, acceptance of the problem, and the ability to change.
The "Don't Stutter" Approach
Based on the belief that a stutter's fluent speech can be strengthened sufficiently to enable him to withstand any threat of stuttering. Zero stuttering is the goal. All traditional techniques (distractions) are employed: rate control with a metronome, delayed auditory feedback, relaxation, unison speaking, speaking while sighing, suggestion/hypnosis, reward/punishment, prolongation of vowels and syllables.
The "Modification of Stuttering" Approach
Seeks to achieve fluency through training a stutter to stutter without struggle or avoidance. The stuttering is not penalized and there is no attempt to have the stutterer avoid it. The stutterer is encouraged to stutter if he has to, but in more easy-effortless way; one that will not interfere with communication. Van Riper's MIDVAS Approach fits under this category.
A release for forbidden feelings, fears, etc. The clinician must be a totally understanding adult in this situation.
Improvisation of a play under adult guidance. Role Playing.
A method of swallowing air into the esophagus and then burping it back up for articulation purposes.
A one way valve inserted through an opening between the trachea and esophagus. It is activated by placing a finger over the stoma. It provides a constant supply of air, but like esophageal speech, relies on vibration of esophageal tissues for voicing.
Hair Cells of Cochlea
Those hair cells nearest to the middle ear (basal end) respond to high frequencies; those hair cells farthest from the middle ear respond to low frequencies.
Basal End (Hair Cells)
Hair Cells nearest to the middle ear that respond to high frequencies.
Apex (Hair Cells)
Hair cells farthest from the middle ear that respond to low frequencies.
Absence of an ear canal, usually accompanied by deformed or missing auricle.
Treatment of Hearing Loss
No effective drug treatment. Usually corrected by surgery. (Stapedectomy)
Blanket of tissue covering the cerebral hemispheres. Responsible for all of our human behaviors.
Motor Coordination, muscle tone, and coordination of articulatory movements.
Central controlling mechanism for entire brain.
Respiratory and circulatory centers.
The desire to change and improve.
Realizing the nature of the problem.
Overcoming the fears associated with the problem
Breaking up old patterns and getting ready to try new ones.
Trying new patterns to determine better form of speech communication.
Using new patterns in everyday speech communication.
Substituting non-feared words for feared words.
True or False: Laryngectomy surgery does not separate respiration from digestion.
The hole in the neck to which the trachea is attached.
Psychological Fears of Laryngectomy
Cancer may return, Individual may not survive, and individual may never talk again.
Central Nervous System
Consists of brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Cranial and Spinal Nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Parts.
Brings you back to normal.
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