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73 terms

Biology LAP 10

STUDY!!!!!
STUDY
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taxonomy
science of naming and classifying
how are species grouped?
according to biological characteristics
species have a ____ part name
two
Aristotle
a Greek philosopher
plants by structure
animals by habitat
John Ray
long detailed Latin names
Dianthus caryophyllus
the carnation
Linnaeous
structure
binomial nomenclature
taxons
Binomial Nomenclature
a system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
writing a binomial nomenclature
Latin
Genus
-1st word
-CAPITALIZED
Descriptive term
-2nd word
-not capitalized
subspecies
-3rd word
-homo sapiens sapiens
classifications
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species
binomial nomenclature
name is underlined when written
italicized in prnt
abbreviate using 1st letter of genus
ex.) C. lupus
Canis lupus
6 Modern Kingdoms
Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plant
Animal
ailurus fulgens
red panda
classification criteria
evolutionary relationships
anatomy
physiology
genetics
life history
embryology
biochemistry
Phylogenetic Systematics
current trend in classification
"Phylogeny"
how living and extinct organisms are related to each other
GOAL to evolutionary classification
to group species according to evolutionary descent
groups are called ______
clades
Three Domains of Life
archaea
bacteria
eukarya
Domain bacteria
prokaryotic
unicellular
peptidoglycan
heterotrophic or autotrophic
Domain Archaea
prokaryotic
unicellular
lack peptidoglycan
unique membrane lipids
extreme environments
DNA sequences resemble those of eukaryotes
Protists
eukaryotes
unicellular
heterotroph or autotroph
plants
autotrophs (contain chloroplasts)
eukaryotes
multicellular
non-motile
fungi
heterotrophic (absorptive)
eukaryotic
multi-cellular
non-motile
animals
hetertroph (ingestive)
eukaryote
multi-cellular
archaebacteria
all prkaryotes
thermophile
intense heat
halophile
high salt concentration
methanogens
create methane
eubacteria
diverse
nearly every ecological niche
beneficial roles or eubacteria
1. recycle C,N,S, & P
2. E. Coli produce vitamin K
3. digestion of cellulose in cattle
4.biotechnology- insulin, clotting factor
5. clean up toxic wastes and oil spills
6. manufacture of yogurt, cheese, vinegar
bacteria
binary fission
heterotrophic or autotrophic
binary fission
reproduction by splitting in half
3 main shapes of bacteria
spheres, rods, spirals
3 main colonies of bacteria
chains, clusters, pairs
bacterial growth
moisture
wide range of temperature
darkness
atmospheric conditions
obligate aerobes (must have O2)
obligate anaerobes (killed by O2)
facultative anaerobes (can live in O2 rich or anaerobic conditions)
3 kinds of protist
algal
fungal
protozoans
importance of Algal and Fungal protista
basis of food chain
diatomaceous earth- toothpaste
red tide
Algal protists
eugenoids, Golden Algae, dinoflagellates
Fungal Protists
slime molds
Protozoan Protists
ciliates
flagellates
sporozoans
sarcodines
Protozoan importance
disease
-african sleeping sickness
-malaria
-dysentery
niches of fungi
saprobes - decompose
-mushrooms
parasites - harm host
-athlete's foot
-ringworm
benefits of fungi
bread, cheese, food
drugs & enzymes
decomposers
2 types or animals
invertebrates - no backbone
vertebrates - have a backbone
invertebrates
95% of all animals
vertebrates
chordates
notochord - generally becomes backbone
ex) fish, reptiles, birds, mammals
fish
aquatic vertebrates
gills
ectothermic
fins and scales
amphibians
larva have gills
adults have lungs
ectothermic
reptiles
dry scaly skin
ectothermic
lay shelled eggs
birds
feathers and wings
endothermic
light skeleton
lay shelled eggs
mammals
hair or fur
endothermic
produce milk
noncellular
viruses
-herpes
-HIV
-ebola
urus horribilis
grizzly bear
canis familiaris
dog
felis catus
cat
panthera leo
lion
canis lupus
wolf
urus americanus
black bear
panthera tigris
tiger
homo sapiens
humans
panthera panthera
panther
ailuropoda melanoleuca
panda
canis latrans
coyote
acinonyx jubatus
cheetah
haliaeetus leucocephalus
bald eagle
felis concolor
mountain lion
cavia porcellus
guinea pig
bos taurus
cattle
classifying humans into taxons
animalia
chordata
mammalia
carnivora
ursidae
ursus
ursus arctos
monophyletic group
includes a single common ancestor and all of its descendants
cladogram
links groups of organisms by showing how evolutionary lines branched off from common ancestors