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is the process of translating information into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory.

semantic encoding

is the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words.


_____ memory is a momentary sensory memory for auditory stimuli.

iconic memory

is a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photograph-like quality lasting only about a second.

method of loci

is a mnemonic device in which ideas or information are associated with a place or part of a building; used in Greek plays to remember long passages.

short term

memory lasts from 3 to 12 seconds and can hold about 7 items in memory before being placed into LTM.


Sometimes you must repeat things over and over until you are able to place STM into LTM; this process is called _______________________ rehearsal


Organizing items into familiar, manageable units is known as ____________________.

long term

memory contains relatively permanent and unlimited capacity. (Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information.)

hippocampal; cerebellum

Semantic and Episodic memory are both types of _______________ memory while procedural memory is known as _____________ memory.


semantic, episodic, and procedural are all type of ______

cerebral cortex

LTM is created by the hippocampus which places these memories in


_________________________ memory includes knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings.


____ memory includes learned skills that do not require conscious recollection.


The cerebellum is a neural center in the hindbrain that processes _______________ memories.


A person could know how to play the piano but not remember having ever played a song on the piano. If you ask him to play, he will say he doesn't know how when in fact he has played many times in the past. He has an impairment of _________________memory.


The ____________________ in the brain is responsible for laying down new declarative
long-term memories.

long term potentiation

_________________________ refers to synaptic enhancement after learning. An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.

misinformation effect

_____________________ involves incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

retrieve info

Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help ______________________.


To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called ____________________.

proactive interference

__________________ _________________________ describes the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

retroactive interference

____________________ _______________________ describes the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

retrieval rates

mood, motives, retrieval cues, and interference all affect

anterograde amnesia

_______________________ ______________________ involves remembering everything before an accident but unable to make new memories.

retrograde amnesia

_______________________ ______________________ involves remembering everything before an accident but unable to make new memories.


__________________ is a defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness.

primacy effect

________________ involves remembering stuff at the beginning of a list better than at the middle of a list.

recency effect

_______________ involves remembering stuff at the end of a list better than at the middle of a list.

state dependent

____________________________ memory is the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.

distributed practice

__________________ refers to spacing learning periods.

masses practice

____________________ refers to learning which is 'crammed' into a single session

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