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32 terms

Memory

STUDY
PLAY
encoding
is the process of translating information into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory.
semantic encoding
is the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words.
echoic
_____ memory is a momentary sensory memory for auditory stimuli.
iconic memory
is a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photograph-like quality lasting only about a second.
method of loci
is a mnemonic device in which ideas or information are associated with a place or part of a building; used in Greek plays to remember long passages.
short term
memory lasts from 3 to 12 seconds and can hold about 7 items in memory before being placed into LTM.
maintenance
Sometimes you must repeat things over and over until you are able to place STM into LTM; this process is called _______________________ rehearsal
chunking
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units is known as ____________________.
long term
memory contains relatively permanent and unlimited capacity. (Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information.)
hippocampal; cerebellum
Semantic and Episodic memory are both types of _______________ memory while procedural memory is known as _____________ memory.
LTM
semantic, episodic, and procedural are all type of ______
cerebral cortex
LTM is created by the hippocampus which places these memories in
sematic
_________________________ memory includes knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings.
procedural
____ memory includes learned skills that do not require conscious recollection.
implicit
The cerebellum is a neural center in the hindbrain that processes _______________ memories.
episodic
A person could know how to play the piano but not remember having ever played a song on the piano. If you ask him to play, he will say he doesn't know how when in fact he has played many times in the past. He has an impairment of _________________memory.
hippocampus
The ____________________ in the brain is responsible for laying down new declarative
long-term memories.
long term potentiation
_________________________ refers to synaptic enhancement after learning. An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.
misinformation effect
_____________________ involves incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
retrieve info
Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help ______________________.
priming
To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called ____________________.
proactive interference
__________________ _________________________ describes the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive interference
____________________ _______________________ describes the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
retrieval rates
mood, motives, retrieval cues, and interference all affect
anterograde amnesia
_______________________ ______________________ involves remembering everything before an accident but unable to make new memories.
retrograde amnesia
_______________________ ______________________ involves remembering everything before an accident but unable to make new memories.
repression
__________________ is a defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness.
primacy effect
________________ involves remembering stuff at the beginning of a list better than at the middle of a list.
recency effect
_______________ involves remembering stuff at the end of a list better than at the middle of a list.
state dependent
____________________________ memory is the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
distributed practice
__________________ refers to spacing learning periods.
masses practice
____________________ refers to learning which is 'crammed' into a single session