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26 terms

Astronomy Vocab

Yak period 7/8 earth science honors check out cayleys presentation: http://docs.google.com/Presentation?id=dgtjph37_1254g77nd3
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Asteroid
A solid rocky and or metallic body that independently orbits the sun
Big Bang Theory
States that all matter and energy started out concentrated in a small area and, after a gigantic explosion, matter began to organize into subtonic particles and atoms
Celestial object
Any object outside or above Earth's atmosphere
Comet
A low density object made of ice that turns to gas as it nears the sun
Doppler effect
The shifting of wavelengths
Eccentricity
The degree of ovalness of an ellipse, or how far an ellipse is from being a circle; computed using a formula
Ellipse
A closed curve around two fixed points called foci, in which the sum of the distances between any point of the curve and the foci is a constant
Focus
In an ellipse, either of two fixed points located so that the sum of their distances to any point on the ellipse is constant
Galaxy
A collection of billions of stars and various
Gravitation
The attractive force that exist between any two objects in the universe; proportional to the product of the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers; also called gravitational force
Impact crater
Meteorites that have sufficient mass to create a depression in Earth's crust
Impact event
When objects collide with the planets because of gravitational pull
Inertia
The concept that an object at rest will tend to remain at rest and that an object in motion with maintain the direction and speed of that motion unless an opposing force affects it
Jovian planets
Far from the sun and have very large masses
Luminosity (of a star)
Measures how bright the star will be in relation to the sun if all stars were the same distance from the observer
Meteor
Very small solid fragment that orbit the sun
Milky Way Galaxy
Our solar system is part of this spiral shaped galaxy
Moon
A body that orbits a planet or an asteroid as those objects orbit the sun
Nuclear fusion
The combining of the nuclei of smaller elements to form the nuclei of larger elements with some of the mass being converted into energy
Red shift
When earth and other celestial objects are moving apart and the electromagnetic waves are spread out
Revolution
A planets movement around the sun in a path called an orbit; the movement of one body around another in a path called an orbit
Rotation
The spinning of an object, such as a planet, moon, or star, on an imaginary axis- like a top
Solar system
Any star or small group of orbiting stars and all the other objects that revolve around the star
Star
Usually a large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines
Terrestrial planets
Close to the sun and mostly solid and are high in density
Universe
Everything that exists in any place