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Greek Civ Final
Terms in this set (86)
Literature and Performance
A Greek poet, author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, blindness associated with prophets and poets, thought to be divinely inspired
Greeks sailed to Troy to avenge the abduction of Helen, wife of Menelaus, by Trojan prince Paris. Iliad takes place in tenth year of war, major theme is anger of Achilles who withdraws from battles to avenge a slight to him by Greek King Agamemnon. Ends with burial of Hector and fall of Troy.
Journey home from Troy to Ithaca of Odysseus, faithful wife Penelope, makes it home and kills suitors
A specific meter with six dactyls per line, aids memory
Epic poetry settings
Religious festivals, royal courts, smaller synoptic gatherings
Recount stories of gods births and important moments in their lives
Purpose of Poetry
Tell stories, transmitting and increasing fame (kleos)
Composed in a variety of meters distinct from dactylic hexameter (elegy, iambus), performed with an instrument (lyre, oboe, harp). Often spoken in first person.
Greek lyricist who pioneered the poetic form.
Lyric vs Epic
Different meters, epic focus on heroic past, lyric on personal and immediate nature of its subject matter
Greek lyric poet, personal poems on erotic themes
Lyric poet, wrote odes to victorious Olympians, performed in choruses
Ancient dramatic festival in which tragedy, comedy, and satyric drama originated
teachers, authors of tragedies at City Dionysia
Leader of the chorus, often financed productions or tragedies
Father of tragedy, wrote "Persians," and "Oresteia" (Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, and Eumenides)
Orestes fleeing furies after killing his mother, Athenian court, justice. Written by Aeschylus.
Wrote tragedies, Oedipus the King marries his mother and unknowingly kills father.
Wrote tragedies, "Medea," female psychology
Greek comic plays that directly or indirectly lampooned society and politics; they were filled with sight gags and obscene humor.
Old Comedy, "Lysistrata"
Art and Architecture
Geometric and abstract designs on Greek pots
An ancient Greek wide-mouthed mixing bowl, used as grave markers
Bodies washed and anointed with oil, prothesis (lying in state), and ekphora (carrying out), depicted on geometric pottery. Professional mourners were hired.
Iconography, different media, techniques from Eastern cultures. more international. Developed in Corinth.
Corinthian mixing bowl
Multicolored iconography, orientalizing
Cutting into clay with a needle tool or carving tool
Sculture in Orientalizing period
Developing interest in human figure, bronze, sanctuaries
Advancement of art techniques due to trade with other countries such as Egypt, large scale stone temples and sculptures
"young man," free-standing statues of nude male youths. Influenced by Egyptian sculptures. Many found in sanctuaries, others used as grave markers. Can be dated based on style, increasing musculature and modeled facial features with time.
Greek monumental painting
Marketplaces, sanctuaries, increased use of color, mosaic, frescos
Funerals, prizes, most often in symposium (drinking parties held by elite Greek men in the andron, or "men's room").
Used to hold wine
Used to hold water
In early Greek pottery, the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details incised through the silhouettes.
In later Greek pottery, the silhouetting of red figures against a black background, with painted linear details; the reverse of black-figure painting.
Dated to sack of Athens by Persians, lifelike appearance, increased use of bronze
Natural pose of a standing figure with unevenly distributed weight.
Classical, break from kouros, more naturalistic, hollow eyes
Polychromy, inlaid eyes, copper lips and nipples, silver teeth, more pronounced contrapposto. Bronze allows for wide stance, not possible with marble.
Contains sanctuary of Athena (Parthenon), Doric construction.
contains a continuous (uninterrupted) block of stonework that may be plain or sculpted
Marketplace, location of civic buildings (stoas), courtrooms, council house, sanctuaries, etc.
After death of Alexander the Great, grander, larger in scale, more dramatic art
Greek thinkers before Socrates, phuskoi (natural philosophers)
Principle, source, or origin, theorized by Anaximander to be the apeiron (that which is boundless).
Humanism and the Sophists
Celebrated humans, equal footing with gods, taught religious skepticism
Professional lecturer, Protagoras
Law, custom, tradition
Introducing new gods, questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth. Plato's "Apology of Socrates," claims that he was misrepresented as a sophist.
"Republic," moves away from dialectic, defines justice. Defined everything by its good. Founded the Academy. Female education, "philosopher queen."
A definition is proposed, then criticized, in order to further our understanding of whatever is being proposed
Plato compares the life of those who do not pursue knowledge of the good to prisoners in a cave. Philosophy helps prisoners escape, enlightened by eidos (universal form) of the good.
Student and rival of Plato, tutored Alexander the Great. Founded the Lyceum.
Substance (actualization of form, "eidos," and matter, "hule").
The four causes (with statue of Zeus analogy)
Material: potential for bronze to be smelted from other metals
Formal: idea the sculptor had in mind
Efficient: the ability of the sculptor to make the statues
Final: the reason the sculptor made the statue
Hellenistic Philosophy and Individualism
Individualism in kingdoms ruled by monarch. Major schools of Stoicism, Skepticism, and Epicureanism. Rivalries among different schools, collective focus on individual.
Themes of Philosophy
Thought and Reality
Gods and Religion
Soul and Body
Women and the Oikos
All from non-Macedonian sources, little interest from other sources until Philip II. Very little epigraphic evidence, usually from Greece instead.
Between Balkans and Greek peninsula, higher mountains, more extreme climate, river flow year-round, very agriculturally productive and rich in natural resources
Monarchies, vulnerable to foreign tribes. Alexander I plays major role in Herodotus' narrative of Persian Wars. Provided timber for Athenian ships.
Son of Alexander I
Successor of Perdiccas, better relationship with Athens, continued hellenization of Macedonian court started under Alexander I.
Made Macedonia into important power, reformed army, new tactics, training, and long spear (sarissas). Political marriages, for example to Olympias. Took control of Greek world after defeating Athens. Portrayed as barbarian by Demosthenes.
Ancient association of Greek Tribes before the rise of Polis, waged Third Sacred War, Philip as defender of Apollo.
Ruled Greece and Macedonia after Alexander's death, overthrown by Philip V
Alexander the Great
Defeated Persian King Darius, married Roxane (non-Macedonian)
King in Macedonia
Philip II reforms
More bureaucratic and absolute monarchy, integrated aristocrats from around kingdom, expanded ranks of the companions (hetairoi), member of the Macedonian elite.
Macedonian Royal Women
Played role in Argead dynasty, political roles, succession, for example Eurydice securing throne for her three sons.
Macedonian symposiums, hunting
Competitions with Kings and elite to advance place in courts
Zeus, similar to Greek, cult of Dionysus. Did not construct temples, concentrated on tombs and monumental architecture as elites were more likely spend more on private works.
The Past in the Present
Identifying the influence and impact of Ancient Greek culture on the though and imaginations of people in different times and places.
Examine what we bring from our own experiences to readings of the past.
Verbal description of a work of visual art
Crafting of Achilles' shield
Book 18 of the Iliad,
Crafted by Hephaestus
The Iliad's shield reception
Thetis (Achilles' divine mother) asks for armor to be made. Carries image of the world which he is engaged in destroying and will leave behind when he dies. Makes him supernatural in his heroic status. When he wears it, also become heartless and less than human, overcome by vengeance.
Greek and Roman receptions
Sophocles' "Ajax," armor given to Odysseus, not Ajax. Armor as a source of strife after Ajax commits suicide, Ajax gives his armor to his son, more traditional.
Virgil's "Aeneid," Vulcan creates shield depicting Rome's history. Specific history rather than generic space.
W.H. Auden's shield reception
Poem, "The Shield of Achilles" (1952)
Graceful scene of the cosmic order and Achilles' joy. Reflects on role of art in human history in glorification of war. Does not glorify war like other sources.
Cy Twimbly's shield reception
Painting, shield as whirlwind of darkness and flames
Louise Glück's reception
Poem, "The Triumph of Achilles," no mention of shield
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