Geosc040 Exam 1
Penn State Geosc040 Exam 1 Quiz review
Terms in this set (80)
The World largest mountains are at the bottom of the sea, under water. T or F
Nearly all of Earth's surface water is contained in:
The oceans represent far less water than the water that is bound to minerals in Earth's interior: Tor F
-during the first 0.5 x 10^9 years of earth's history
-from emission (degassing) of volatiles from earth's interior
Water on earth most likely formed:
is an empirical approach based on observations and facts
What type of approach is the Scientific method and what is is based on?
It is easier to prove a theory or hypothesis than it is to disprove a theory or hypothesis. T or F
The "Goldilocks Principle," in part, suggest that Earth has just the right position in the solar system to allow retention of liquid water and habitability for life. T or F
Extreme variation in the ocean's temperature is prevented by water's
-surface tension, which is the property that makes water form into droplets when it's raining
-heat capacity, which is a measure of heat required to change the temperature of water
Key physical properties of water include:
energy required to change ice to liquid water
Latent heat is the
Heat capacity is a measure of the temperature of water, T or F
Land heats and cools more rapidly than bodies of water, T or F
It takes more heat to warm up water than it does to worm up rocks and soil, T or F
The latent heat of fusion for water is 80 cal per gram. How much heat energy is required to melt 10 grams of ice?
higher than that of ice, which is why ice floats in water
In relations to ice, the density of liquid water is:
33ppt on average and 35 g/kg on average
Measure of seawater salinity is (both measurements)
One important connection between the water cycle and the rock cycle is rock weathering: T or F
The chemistry of ocean water is the same as that of river water: T or F
Seawater salinity is the same in all parts of the world ocean: T or F
evaporation, precipitation, condensation
What three main steps does the water cycle involve?
Inputs such as river water and volcanic gases; outputs such as evaporates and interaction of seawater with the seafloor; rock weathering; marine life including plants and animals
List four main things that influence ocean chemistry including inputs and outputs?
Residence time of and element in seawater can be calculated from the total amount of the element and the input rate, T or F
A water molecule may evaporate from the ocean, become part of a cloud and then become a rain drop that becomes part of a river and flows back into the ocean. The average "residence" time for a molecule to make this trip is ~4,000 years , T or F
The residence time of an element in seawater is an indication of how rapidly it is cycled. Long residence times indicate low demand and/or infrequent precipitation as a mineral, T or F
stratified into layers, the shallow water has different properties than deep water
What is the ocean stratified into and does the deep water have the same properties as the shallow water?
Marine animals break down water molecules to obtain O2, T or F
increase as temperature falls and salinity rises
In relation to temp and salinity what happens to density?
Freshwater reaches maximum density at the freezing point, T or F
sigma_t is a measure of
The ocean is stratified with the densest water on top and less dense water below, T or F
are names for the region between surface water and deep water; refer to changes in temperature, salinity and density
What are the thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline and what do they refer to?
organisms that respire produce CO2 in deep water; photosynthesis in surface water uses CO2; deepwater is colder than shallow water and the solubility of Co2 is higher for colder water
There is more dissolved carbon dioxide in deep water of the ocean that in ocean's surface waters because:
Latitudes above about 40 degrees N and S receive more solar energy than they lose, T or F
are part of the transport of heat from low to high latitudes; are influenced by the Coriolis effect; have a regular pattern related to rising and descending winds at certain latitudes
Large scale atmospheric winds and pressure systems have what three components?
Hadley cells and Polar cells are caused by thermal anomalies associated with glaciers, T or F.
Hadley (0-30deg); Ferrel (30-60deg); Polar (60-90deg)
What are the three major circulation cells in each hemisphere with correct latitudes?
a surplus of solar energy received in the tropics relative to high latitudes
Uneven heating of the earth's surface results in
deflection of wind and ocean currents to the right in the NH; deflection of wind and ocean currents to the left in the SH; trade winds that blow east to west in both the NH and SH; formation of large-scale ocean currents called gyres
The Coriolis Effect plays a role in what four things
Large-scale gyres involve counterclockwise motion in both the northern and southern hemispheres, T or F
Global oceanic circulation involving deep water and surface water motion acts to regulate Earth's surface heat and climate, T or F
Deep-water ocean circulation is driven by temperature and salinity contrasts between water masses, T or F
The coriolis effect arises from conservation of momentum and earth's rotation, T or F
Large-scale gyres in the ocean bring warm water from the tropics to the poles and cold water from the poles to the tropics, T or F
Water piles up in the interior of a gyre, causing a slight surface slope and pressure gradient towards the outside of the gyre, T or F
Weddell Sea; Norwegian-Greenland Sea
Today, oceanic deep water is formed in what seas?
Which of the following is/are true about the temperature-depth relationship for seawater?
a-tropical, polar, and temperate regions are similar
b-Polar regions have the largest temperature difference between surface water and deep water
c-tropical regions have the highest surface water temp
d-deep water has about the same temp for each latitudinal zone
e- c & d
transports heat from low to high latitudes
What does the Gulf Stream Transport
Circulation around a low pressure system in the NH is clockwise
deflection of ocean currents to the left in the SH; Trade Winds that blow east to west in both the NH and SH; formation of large scale ocean currents called gyres
The Coriolis effect plats a role in which three things?
Easterly winds between the equator and 30deg N are caused by winds that blow south and are deflected by the Coriolis effect, T or F
Hurricanes are fueled by latent heat release in the upper atmosphere, T or F
The ocean transport sensible and latent heat, and this transport plays a role in determining earth's global temperature distribution, T or F
Phytoplankton are small animals that live in the aphotic zone and are an important source of inorganic energy for nearly all ocean life, T or F
The following are an example of matter:
d-all of the above
e-none of the above
it takes 10,000 kg of phytoplankton
The tropic pyramid tells us that to grow 1kg of a top level predator-consumer such as tuna, how much phytoplankton does it take?
availability in nutrients
Marine phytoplankton and photosynthetic organisms. In the photic zone of the ocean their growth rate is often limited by what?
Phytoplankton production is often very high in the open ocean because of rapid upward mixing of deeper waters into photic zone, T or F
Deep water normally flows up into the photic zone in the open ocean T or F
World fish production has increased steadily for the past 50 years and advances in large-scales fishing techniques will likely allow fish catch to increase for another 50 years, T or F
Baleen Whales migrate large distances to feast on plankton in the Bering and Chukchi Seas when conditions are optimum for growth of dinoflagellates, T or F
What indicates blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates?
The energy cycle of life in the ocean involves plankton, which convert sun light to organic matter. Organic matter is eventually broken down by bacteria and other organisms. This recycles the nutrients for further plankton growth, T or F
Red tides occur when there are massive quantities of what in the ocean?
Which of the following concerning phytoplankton is/are correct?
a-productivity in polar ares varies significantly during the year
b-productivity in tropical areas does not vary during the year
c-productivity in the temperate ares is the same year round
d-productivity in the north pole regions is the highest in the summer and lower in the winter
e- all but c
Phytoplankton that form the basis of the food chain in the ocean
a-are swimming animals
b-are eaten by sharks
c-thrive in the thermocline
d-generally reproduce slowly during periods of red tide
e-none of the above
There are very few commercial fisheries that are in danger of collapse from over fishing, T or F
all of the above
a-are typically cold-blooded vertebrates with scales, gills and fins
b-in some cases do not have scales or fins
c-are vertebrates and typically have a streamlined body shape for easy/ fast swimming
The "Goldilocks Principle," as applied to the origin of water on Earth suggests that: 1) Earth has just the right position in the solar system -not too close to the Sun and not too far away-- and 2) When it was forming, Earth had just the right mass, large enough to retain water vapor, T or F
On average, and particularly in the tropics, the temperature and salinity of ocean deep water is very similar to that of shallow, surface water, T or F
Water molecules have polar (unequally distributed) charge that leads to many of water's unusual characteristics, T or F
Rachel Carson suggested that rain and other factors weather the continents and that rivers deliver dissolved rock (including elements such as Na, Ca and Cl) to the world ocean, which would cause changes in ocean chemistry through time, T or F
When scientists carry out investigations, they typically:
A) Construct one or more hypotheses
B) Make observations and collect data
C) Test the hypothesis by trying to disprove it
D) Evaluate and change hypotheses on the basis of results
E) All of the above
A) the energy required to change ice to liquid water
B) the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
C) the energy released when water vapor condenses to form rain
D) the energy required to heat of liquid water from 0 to 100 degrees
E) A and C
false there is more CO2 in deep water
There is less dissolved carbon dioxide in deepwater of the ocean than in ocean's surface waters because
D-all of the above
Which of the following is/are true?
A) Freshwater reaches maximum density at about 4 degrees C.
B) Saltwater is more dense than freshwater
C) Seawater density is determined primarily by salinity and temperature
D) All of the above
Many elements are dissolved in seawater, but Na is the most abundant and Cl is the second most abundant, T or F
Sensible heat, heat capacity and latent heat are not the same. Each of these terms refers to different aspects of the relationship between heat and temperature, T or F
D- none of the above
Which of the following is/are true?
A) Water has lower heat capacity than land
B) Water has higher temperature than air at all latitudes
C) Seawater generally has more Ca than Na
D) none of the above
C-is lower for seawater than for freshwater
For gases dissolved in seawater, solubility
A) is higher in warmer water
B) increases as salinity increases
C) is lower for seawater than for fresh water.
D) A and C
E) none of the above
Cl, Na SO4, Mg, Ca, K
List of elements or molecules represents the correct rank order from highest to lowest concentration in seawater?