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what is mass wasting?
downslope movement of rock debris, water and soil in response to gravity
what is the driving factor in mass wasting?
What is sheer stress?
the force acting parallel to the slope promoting downslope movement
What is sheer strength?
the resistance of the material of sheer failure or sliding
which is a stronger force? sheer stress or sheer strength?
what is the downslope force?
what is the resisting force?
the material strength
what are some examples of resisting forces?
cohesion and friction
What is the angle of repose?
the steepest angle at which a pile can be at without collapsing
what happens to the angle of repose when water is added to system?
the angle of repose increases
what is the angle of repose for fine sand?
what is the angle of repose for coarse sand?
what is the angle of repose for angular pebbles?
what are some types of mass wasting?
slumping, mudflow, debris flow, rock fall
what is creep?
slow downhill movement of regolith... most expensive
what causes creep?
wetting and drying
freezing and thawing
what is a mudflow/debris flow?
water rich movement
mud is made of fine sediment
debris has large rocks
What is a landslide?
the rapid movement of a large mass of any type of earth materials down a steep slope
what is a scree landslide
smaller landslide where most of the fall is down near the base
what is a tallus landslide?
very large landslide
know the difference between fall and slide
what is slumping?
failure along circulinear plane
scarp at top
toe at bottom
what are some failure triggers?
shocks, vibrations, changes in slope
what is quick clay?
liquefaction of sediments due to a pattern of disturbance
what are some characteristics that can destabilize a slope?
steepening the angle of repose
loading- asking weight on top of slope
What is cut and fill?
cutting out a steep slope and filling it in somewhere else
How can undercutting occur?
naturally and human induced
how does water affect gravity?
it adds mass (-)
increases pore pressure (-)
can be cohesive (+)
how does weathering affect slope strength?
creates weaker regolith
how does vegetation affect slope strength?
it stabilizes slopes... effectively removing slopes
how does water reduce slope strength?
water in pores push grains apart
water lubricates grain contact
what are some ways to prevent slope hazards?
know about the vaiont dam and why it was so disastrous
deep dam, previous landslides, still continued to build until the big one came 600 million tons of limestone fell into top of dam and create HUGE wave
what is the global distribution of water
what is the global precipitable water amount?
what is the global average precipitation percent?
review residence time sheet
What is precipitation?
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.
What is interception?
Water being prevented from reaching the surface by trees or grass
What is evapotranspiration?
evaporation of the ground surface and vegetation
What is infiltration?
water that percolates into the ground
What is runoff?
water that leaves the basin through surface water flow
What is storage?
water stored as groundwater or surface water
what is the equation for discharge?
precipitation - evapotranspiration +_ storage
what are the types of precipitation?
what is porosity?
totalt pore space
What is permeability?
the ease with which water passes through a material
what is the raindrop impact?
the falling or rain causes some erosion and movement of particles
what is an overland flow?
displaces soil particles and carries them down the slope
what is a sheet flow?
thin or shallow flow that is difficult to carry material
what is a gully?
a large groove or channel in the soil that carries runoff after a rainstorm
What is a rill?
Tiny grooves in the soil formed bc of runoff.
what is an alluvium?
general term for unconsolidated sediments deposited from a river
what is a point bar?
slow aggradation of alluvium
what is a cut bank?
the steep meander outside of a meander bed, eroded by lateral movement
in terms of streams, what is competence?
the largest size grain that is able to be transported
in terms of streams, what is capacity?
the volume of sediments that are able to be transported
Know what a floodplain is
can be small of big
what is the base level of a stream?
the deepest depth a river can erode
what is an alluvial fan?
cone shaped deposit of sediment formed by a stream issuing from mountains into a lowland
what is a delta?
sediment deposits in triangular shaped, formed when a river or stream enters an ocean or lake
what are some types of drainage patterns?
parallel, trellis, rectangular, angular
some unit controlling flow
know the evolution of meanders!!
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
what is a thawleg?
the deepest part of the stream located near the cut bank
how does a river flow
in a helical flow
what is a dissolved load?
material, especially ions from chemical weathering, that are carried in solution by a stream
What is suspended load?
the fine-grained particles that travel in the water column above the stream bed
what is bed material load?
material that is "saltated" across river floor
review sediment movement graph
located on desktop!!!!!
what is a riffle pool?
pools on outer edge
where the velocity is faster than the pool
what is a convergent flow?
flow is toward center flow
what is a divergent flow?
flow is away from center flow
what is used to collect tree ring samples?
an incement borer
what do you put into the borer to get out stick?
What is Leibig's law of the minimum?
the most limiting factor will control the growth of an organism
What is autocorrelation?
a condition today can have an affect on future conditions
what is the principle of cross dating and why is it so important?
there is a big database with the tree rings all the way into the 1800s if you have a sample and don't know where it belongs you can bring it and compare it with the others to cross correlate and date your sample
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