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change, growth, or improvement over a period of time in all areas relating to farming
an urban studies professor who defined a city as an area whose population has size, density, and diversity
hunting and gathering
the process of living that involves hunting for meat, gathering for edible produce (nuts, roots...), and traveling frequently
the time period in which people began to settle and harvest land, to select seeds for crops, and to domesticate animals
the increasing gap in economic conditions as a result of globalization of the economy
social evolutionary view
point of view of scholars who believe it no accident that the first towns emerged within the same 5000 years or so
the undisputed centers of political, economic, and cultural life in their regions; were self-sufficient
a period of time, around 5000 years ago, when people first mixed tin and copper to make bronze
a more centralized polis, with surrounding "suburbs" and small towns; was Greece's largest trading center
an open public space in the city center that served as a "place of assembly" for citizens of the polis
raised stone roads that connected city centers with other plazas and with ball-courts
the change from an agricultural society to an industrial society and from cottage industries to factory production
when cities have haphazardly expanded far beyond their centers in all directions (makes it harder to calculate the exact population of a city)
a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
metropolitan areas in which the population exceeds 10 million people and is growing rapidly
an economy in which economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government, nor reported
the mastermind who totally overhauled the city of Paris, essentially building a new city where an existing city already stood
famous and influential American suburb, constructed on Long Island, just outside of New York City
the original Levittown was the brainchild of this builder; he intended to call his community "Island Trees"
(a French invention) larger horse-drawn carriages that could hold as many people as could squeeze inside and even on top of them
Maglev ("magnetic levitation") train that takes passengers from downtown to the airport at 431 km/hour
Hoy No Circula
program in Mexico City, meaning "One Day Without a Car", limits the amount of cars being driven each day
when the upper-class residents ("the gentry") move into urban neighborhoods and buildings that were once occupied by lower-class residents
the new standard unit of cities for the 21st century, proposed by Richard Florida; a large area of continuous urbanization
(a key aspect of urban culture), when talented/creative people cluster together and ideas flow more freely
urban culture; where the presence of the wealthy helps explain why city rent prices are so high in desirable city areas
(a key aspect of urban culture), the ability to walk around town without anyone knowing or caring who you are
what Simmel calls- the ability to ignore and not care about most of what happens around them
(a key aspect of urban culture), the ability or willingness to tolerate (allow the existence, occurrence, or practice of) something
neighborhood in Japan that is more central and spreads out for miles with late-night shops, restaurants, and clubs
a measurement ecological footprints take special account of because these emissions contribute to global climate change
movement that used shadowy lighting to exaggeratively create emotional reactions
a German expressionist filmmaker who used monumental visuals and became famous for visual exaggeration
Germany's capital; at the end of World War II, it was divided into four zones, each controlled by one of the victorious Allied powers
built in 1961, a wall that East Germany constructed to cut West Berlin off from East Berlin and East Germany
new interconnected bike paths that permit safe quick bike journeys from one end of the city to the other in Copenhagen
Danish urban designer and architect who has become a leading advocate for the benefits of cities designed for people & bikes
brings farms into cities- wherever they fit (instead of parks with flowers/trees, there will be strawberry bushes!)
capital of Venezuala that has recently opened several urban garden-farms in the heart of the car-jammed city
one of the most densely-populated cities in the world where no space goes unused (urban farmers grow food on rooftop terraces)
Mumbai Port Trust
a governmnet building that controls Mumbai's large port and has a large urban farm opened on its terrace
Republic of Singapore
an island nation and a modern city-state that housed the world's busiest trading port and is the 2nd-most densely populated country in the world
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