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WSC Special Area: Modern Metropolis

WSC Special Area: Modern Metropolis bold print terms
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urbanity
the many qualities associated with cities and city life
Urban Revolution
the rapid growth of cities in the 20th and 21st centuries
trade
to exchange or give (something) in exchange for (something)
agricultural development
change, growth, or improvement over a period of time in all areas relating to farming
food surplus
extra food
Louis Wirth
an urban studies professor who defined a city as an area whose population has size, density, and diversity
hunting and gathering
the process of living that involves hunting for meat, gathering for edible produce (nuts, roots...), and traveling frequently
Neolithic Revolution
the time period in which people began to settle and harvest land, to select seeds for crops, and to domesticate animals
uneven development
the increasing gap in economic conditions as a result of globalization of the economy
social evolutionary view
point of view of scholars who believe it no accident that the first towns emerged within the same 5000 years or so
city-state
the undisputed centers of political, economic, and cultural life in their regions; were self-sufficient
polis
Greek word for city-state
Bronze Age
a period of time, around 5000 years ago, when people first mixed tin and copper to make bronze
Sparta
a famous polis/network of towns in Greece; was very war-like
Athens
a more centralized polis, with surrounding "suburbs" and small towns; was Greece's largest trading center
agora
an open public space in the city center that served as a "place of assembly" for citizens of the polis
Mayan causeways
raised stone roads that connected city centers with other plazas and with ball-courts
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural society to an industrial society and from cottage industries to factory production
Joseph Bazalgette
engineer who designed an underground sewer system for London
Charles Dickens
19th-century London novelist who wrote about the wickedness of industrialization
urban sprawl
when cities have haphazardly expanded far beyond their centers in all directions (makes it harder to calculate the exact population of a city)
metropolitan area
a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
megacities
metropolitan areas in which the population exceeds 10 million people and is growing rapidly
informal economy
an economy in which economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government, nor reported
slums
poor, run-down urban neighborhoods that lack sanitation, running water, and electricity
organic growth
the natural development of cities, not artificially; the changes are spontaneous
Napoleon III
nephew of the famous Napoleon Bonaparte; he wanted to upgrade Paris
Georges-Eugene Haussmann
the mastermind who totally overhauled the city of Paris, essentially building a new city where an existing city already stood
commute
travel back and forth between work and home
suburbs
residential areas surrounding a city
Levittown
famous and influential American suburb, constructed on Long Island, just outside of New York City
William Leavitt
the original Levittown was the brainchild of this builder; he intended to call his community "Island Trees"
stagecoach
a horse-drawn carriage that was an ancestor of the modern taxi
omnibus
(a French invention) larger horse-drawn carriages that could hold as many people as could squeeze inside and even on top of them
trams
omnibuses with metal wheels that rode along metal tracks
Shanghai Metro
Maglev ("magnetic levitation") train that takes passengers from downtown to the airport at 431 km/hour
Hoy No Circula
program in Mexico City, meaning "One Day Without a Car", limits the amount of cars being driven each day
gentrification
when the upper-class residents ("the gentry") move into urban neighborhoods and buildings that were once occupied by lower-class residents
megaregion
the new standard unit of cities for the 21st century, proposed by Richard Florida; a large area of continuous urbanization
walkability
(a key aspect of urban culture), the measure of how friendly an area is to walking
talent-clustering
(a key aspect of urban culture), when talented/creative people cluster together and ideas flow more freely
big-money culture
urban culture; where the presence of the wealthy helps explain why city rent prices are so high in desirable city areas
anonymity
(a key aspect of urban culture), the ability to walk around town without anyone knowing or caring who you are
alienation
a feeling of disconnectedness and loneliness
hectic
what cities are famous for; full of feverish activity, haste, or confusion
blase attitude
what Simmel calls- the ability to ignore and not care about most of what happens around them
tolerance
(a key aspect of urban culture), the ability or willingness to tolerate (allow the existence, occurrence, or practice of) something
nightlife
a way in which cities differentiate themselves from suburbs, exurbs, and rural areas
Roppongi, Tokyo
neighborhood in Japan known for drawing people from all over the world
Shinjuku, Tokyo
neighborhood in Japan that is more central and spreads out for miles with late-night shops, restaurants, and clubs
Ginza, Tokyo
neighborhood in Japan that is infamous for its upscale bars
ecological footprint
the overall impact of a country on the world's natural environment
carbon emission
a measurement ecological footprints take special account of because these emissions contribute to global climate change
film noir
a fancy French term for "dark films", or films of the night
German expressionism
movement that used shadowy lighting to exaggeratively create emotional reactions
Fritz Lang
a German expressionist filmmaker who used monumental visuals and became famous for visual exaggeration
Metropolis
Fritz Lang's landmark 1927 film which forecast the future of the modern city
Gotham City
home of Batman and his trusty sidekick Robin
Berlin
Germany's capital; at the end of World War II, it was divided into four zones, each controlled by one of the victorious Allied powers
Berlin Wall
built in 1961, a wall that East Germany constructed to cut West Berlin off from East Berlin and East Germany
Copenhagen
Danish capital city that is very sustainable and includes a "carless downtown"
greenways
new interconnected bike paths that permit safe quick bike journeys from one end of the city to the other in Copenhagen
copenhagenize
the process of making a city more bike-and-pedestrian friendly
Jan Gehl
Danish urban designer and architect who has become a leading advocate for the benefits of cities designed for people & bikes
rain catchment
employed on many buildings to trap rainwater on rooftops and reuse it
carbon-neutrality
when a city removes as much carbon from the atmosphere as it puts into it
urban farming
brings farms into cities- wherever they fit (instead of parks with flowers/trees, there will be strawberry bushes!)
Caracas
capital of Venezuala that has recently opened several urban garden-farms in the heart of the car-jammed city
Mumbai, India
one of the most densely-populated cities in the world where no space goes unused (urban farmers grow food on rooftop terraces)
Mumbai Port Trust
a governmnet building that controls Mumbai's large port and has a large urban farm opened on its terrace
Shenzhen
a Chinese city that is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world
Republic of Singapore
an island nation and a modern city-state that housed the world's busiest trading port and is the 2nd-most densely populated country in the world
Johor Bahru
means "new jewel" in Malay; has been an industrial and manufacturing hotspot on the Malaysian peninsula for many years