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Byzantine, Mongol, Abbasid, Tang and Song Review
Terms in this set (60)
It was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire. Today the city is known as Istanbul. The city had a superb location for trade. It had access to two seas.
It was the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian. It was known as heaven on earth. It has a massive dome and beautiful mosaics.
Crossroads of Trade
It was the location of the Byzantine Empire. It was located on important routes of commerce. The empire was located between Europe and Asia.
Code of Justinian
It was a compilation of the complex system of Roman laws; it became the system of laws for the Byzantine Empire. It was ordered collected by Emperor Justinian.
These religious images or paintings were used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions. In the Byzantine Empire, the patriarch viewed icons as idol worship.
These dry or arid grasslands dominate Central Asia. These dry grasslands were the lands of the Mongols. These lands lacked trees.
These soldiers on horseback often turned the tide of the battle. A skilled warrior on horseback was very important.
It is using fear and cruelty as a weapon. The Mongols used this to induce fear in their enemies to encourage them to surrender rather than resist.
These movable tents were used by the Mongols. The Mongols were nomads and did not build permanent shelters.
These nomads keep herds of livestock on which they depended for most of their food. The Mongols were herders. They depended on their animals for survival.
It is to allow people of diverse religions to freely practice their religions. The Mongols engaged in this practice. They allowed conquered subjects to practice and keep their faiths.
It often includes goods of value given by conquered people to their conquerors. It was what the Mongols wanted most from their conquered lands.
The Mongols in Persia
They collected taxes twenty to thirty times a year. They whipped peasants who failed to pay their taxes. They were very harsh but they did allow conquered subjects in the bureaucracy.
It is a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials. In Persia, the Mongols used the Persian version of this. In China, they Mongols relied on Mongols and foreigners in government service.
The Mongols in China
They did not use the examination system in China. They did not want Chinese in government. Thus there was no test for government service. Instead they relied on Mongols and foreigners as government officials.
It is the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. In China, the Mongols repaired this.
It was the period of approximately 150 years of relative peace and stability created by the Mongol Empire. It allowed trade to flourish as the Mongols provided security on the Silk Roads.
It consisted of caravan routes which connected China and the Middle East across Central Asia and Iran. It allowed for the flow of Chinese goods to other lands in Eurasia. It encouraged cultural diffusion.
It was the capital of the Abbasid Dynasty. It was located in Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
It is a time of peace, prosperity and great achievements. It occurred in China and the Islamic world.
These include paper, silk, the clock, the magnetic compass, printed books, gunpowder and fireworks. They spread on trade routes. Cultural diffusion brought these items to new lands.
This disease spread on trade routes, particularly the Silk Road. The Pax Mongolica increased trade but also allowed disease to spread more easily. This disease killed 1/3 of the population. It spread on infected fleas on rats.
It is the holy language of Islam. It is believed to be the language that Allah or God spoke to the Prophet Muhammad in. It is often the subject of Islamic calligraphers.
It does not include representations of God or Allah. It focuses on geometric shapes, the glorification of God's word, and beautiful Arabic script or calligraphy.
Golden Age of Islam
It was a time during the Abbasid Dynasty (with its capital in Baghdad) when the arts and intellectualism were flourishing. Astronomy, surgery, and mathematics were areas of focus and Baghdad was a center of intellectualism.
House of Wisdom
It was also known as the Grand Library and it refers to a major intellectual center in Baghdad. It belonged to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age. Great minds from many lands gathered at it. It was one of many centers of learning in an era known as the Islamic Golden Age.
Examination System in China
It was a test for government service. Any man could take the test, even a poor man. A successful candidate was rewarded with government service and land. He became a scholar-gentry.
It was the practice of making a woman's feet very small. A woman with small feet was considered most beautiful. It reduced the mobility of women or the ability of women to walk easily. It was very painful and was a reflection of China's patriarchal society.
This Venetian merchant and traveler journeyed the entire length of the Silk Roads. The accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade. A book of his travels was written after his return from the court of the great Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler of China.
He was the grandson of Genghis Khan and the founder of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He repaired the infrastructure and prohibited Mongols from grazing their herds on Chinese farmland.
It was the Mongol capital of China. The Mongols abandoned their nomadic ways in China and settled. The great khan settled in his court in Beijing.
This Moroccan Muslim scholar was the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. He traveled more than 75,000 miles in Dar al-Islam (the home of Islam).
It is an Arabic word for the pilgrimage to Mecca. Ibn Battuta started his travels by making it. It is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The great king of Mail, Mansa Musa, also took the pilgrimage to Mecca.
It was dominated by the Byzantine Empire at its height. The Byzantine Empire controlled it. It was where the Silk Roads ended. It allowed the Byzantine Empire to prosper from control of this vital trade route.
Cyril and Methodius
These Byzantine missionaries were sent to convert the Slavs of eastern Europe and the Balkans. They were responsible for the creation of a Slavic written script called Cyrillic. As a result of their missionary activities, the Slavs became Orthodox Christians.
Byzantine Influence on Russia
As a result of this contact, the Cyrillic alphabet, Orthodox Christianity, the concept of a tsar or Caesar and onion-shaped domes were adopted by the Slavs.
It was originally the central city of the early Russian state but it was destroyed by the Mongols when its princes resisted.
The princes of this city became the tribute collectors for the Mongols. Thus when the Mongols destroyed Kiev for resisting Mongol rule, this Russian city became more important and more powerful.
The Tang and Song Dynasties of China
During this time, China experienced a golden age. A golden age is a time of peace, prosperity and great achievements. The compass, gunpowder and printing were invented during this golden age.
It is the spread of ideas or objects from one culture to another. The Silk Roads allowed for it to occur. Chinese inventions like paper, the compass, printing and gunpowder spread easily to Europe on these routes.
The Mandate of Heaven
It is the Chinese belief that the gods chose the emperor to rule but that the gods could remove the right to rule if the emperor ruled badly or was corrupt. It was the reason that China had many dynasties.
The Dynastic Cycle
It is the rise and fall of dynasties in China. As a result of the Mandate of Heaven, China did not have one dynasty but many dynasties. A corrupt dynasty was overthrown and the right to rule was given to the new dynasty.
It was a branch of Christianity developed in the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome. It spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean and Russia. Greek was its official language. Its priests were allowed to marry. Its leader was the patriarch.
Division between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims
One group believes that any pious man in the Islamic community can rule. The other believes that only a descendant from the Prophet's family can rule.
It is a place where many people live in cities. During the Song Dynasty, China had more people living in cities than any other land.
It is a Chinese belief that stresses the importance of social order. It teaches that when people act according to proper roles, peace and harmony ensue. Know your place and act accordingly - those are the most important rules.
It is the Confucian belief that children should honor and obey parents and ancestors. A child should always be respectful to his parents and care for his parents in their elder years.
It is male dominance. Clearly, Confucianism has evidence of this. A wife is inferior to her husband. A wife must always obey her husband. According to Confucius, women are always inferior.
As a result of the examination system in China, a poor man could pass the test for government service and become a government official and landowner. A poor man could move up in the class system. It was, however, difficult because education was privately funded. Thus, a poor man could move up but most did not or this existed.
During the Middle Ages, Islamic armies conquered this Western European land. While the rest of Western Europe suffered in the Middle Ages, this region flourished and experienced a golden age with great advances in math and science.
Formerly the Eastern Roman Empire
After the fall of Rome, historians called it the Byzantine Empire but the people of the empire always thought of themselves as Romans. It really was always this.
These were the scholar-officials and landowners in China. They were most likely to receive their high status as a result of education. They had to pass a test for government service (the examination system).
A Byzantine Contribution
They preserved Greek and Roman learning. When the Germanic invaders burned the libraries of Western Europe, they kept the ideas and the scholarship of the Greeks and Romans.
Muslim Cordoba (Cordova)
It was the capital of Islamic Spain and part of the Umayyad Dynasty. It experienced a golden age as Muslims were very advanced in math and science and religiously tolerant of Jews and Christians. The city flourished.
The Abbasid and Umayyad
These Islamic dynasties ruled during golden ages. One had a capital in Damascus in Syria. The other had a capital in Baghdad. Both flourished.
During its golden age, advances were made in math, science and medicine. Like the Byzantines, Muslims preserved Greek and Roman learning. Muslim architecture also influenced Spanish architecture.
It was a style of building with features such as large domes on square bases, rounded arches, spires, and mosaics. It influenced Russian architecture, particularly with its domes.
The Mongols and Cultural Diffusion
They may not be famous for inventions or golden ages but by providing security on the Silk Roads, they increased trade and allowed ideas and inventions to spread. They were connected to this idea.
Modern European Legal Systems
Many of the ideas in the Code of Justinian, a collection of Roman written laws based on the Twelve Tables, are found here. Ideas like innocent until proven guilty and equality before the law are found here.
It is an Arabic word. It is advanced mathematics. It is part of the Muslim golden age.
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