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bio anthro final
Terms in this set (41)
largest division of geological time, comprising two or more eras
major division of geologic time composed of a number of periods
one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.
any of several divisions of a geologic period during which a geologic series is formed
The process of matching up strata from several sites through the analysis of chemical, physical, and other properties
dating methods that use predictable chemical changes that occur over time
A technique used to date bones by measuring the amount of fluorine absorbed from the surrounding soil.
A relative dating method that uses the associations of fossils in strata to determine each layer's approximate age
Compares different fossil forms based on the first appearance of an organism through its extinction
The radiometric dating method in which the ratio of Carbon-14 to Carbon 12 is measured to provide an absolute date for a material younger than 50,000 years
A dating method in which the energy trapped in a material is measured when the object is heated
fission track dating
An absolute dating method based on the measurement of the number of tracks left by the decay of uranium-238.
amino acid dating
an absolute dating method for organic remains such as bone or shell, in which the amount of change in the amino acid structure is measured
The chemical reaction resulting in the conversion of L amino acids to D amino acids for amino acid dating.
Measures the changes in DNA over time and is used to examine the timing of the splits of primate and human evolution
requires an anoxic environment where decomposition is limited; bones and teeth more likely to fossilize
Principle of Superposition
the principle that in a series of stratified sedimentary rocks the lowest stratum is the oldest
Paleocene organisms that may have been the first primates, originating from an adaptive radiation of mammals. rodent-like teeth, claws, small brain, no opposable thumbs
Adapids and Omomyids
Euprimates in Eocene epoch; small body may have evolved from proprimates in Paleocene and developed clear primate trates like the postorbital bar and a large brain relative to body size
Early Miocene apes found in Asia; ancestral to orangutans due to skull similarities; thick teeth enamel, hard food eater
A genus of Miocene pongids from Asia; the largest primate that ever lived. Closely related to Sivapithecus and Khoratpithecus; 3 meeters tall, not arboreal, thick teeth enamel
Adaptations to life in trees
-Grasping hands and binocular vision
-Moving from ground to trees caused selective pressures that resulted in the ancestral primate
Visual Predation Hypothesis
Hunting in trees
-exploitation of small prey resulted in the primate suite of adaptations
Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis
The proposition that certain primate traits, such as visual acuity, occurred in response to the availability of fruit and flowers after spread of angiosperms
-Primate traits were a response to the development of fruit-bearing angiosperm plants
Site in Tanzania that holds the earliest evidence of the existence of human ancestors
Evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
emergence of first australopithecines- Australopithecus anamensis studied by Leakey and Ward
A later pre-australopithecine species from the late Miocene to the early Pliocene; shows evidence of both bipedalism and arboreal activity but no indication of the primitive perihoning complex. Possible candidate for human ancestor
The earliest pre-australopithecine species found in central Africa with possible evidence of bipedalism.
A robust australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. afarensis, was contemporaneous with Au. boisei, and had the robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments.
Patchy Forest Hypothesis
Bipedalism developed as an energetically efficient way to move between patches of forest to ground. Bipedalism freed the hands for food
Freeing the hands was important in allowing males to assist females more efficiently in procuring food
Hypertrophic specialized set of teeth and jaws, deep massive face, sagittal crest, heavy thick mandible, no canine dimorphism, successful for 1 million years. Found in South Africa
Expensive Tissue Hypothesis
for the brain to increase, metabolic energy must be taken from another part of the body.. in humans the gut got smaller because the diet became less demanding because of COOKING. Broke down tissues so that less energy was needed for metabolic processes.
Cooking produces a high-quality diet, it allows us to get more enrgy from our food; Homo erectus couldn't have subsisted on raw food alone, would have had to cook food
Time period for hominins 2.5-1.0 MYA
Earliest fossil evidence indicates that H. habilis and the earliest H. erectus lived at the same time as other hominins, the later australopithecines
Found in Indonesia. 18,000 yrs ago (co-existed with homo sapiens). Very small in size (nicknamed "The Hobbit"). Made tools and used fire
A very early African tool-making tradition associated members of H. habilis
Simple & crude; first developed by homo habilis
(man of skill) first to make stone tools; increased brain size, short legs and long arms, smaller face and jaws, generalized diet
Potential early member of the genus Homo; mixture of australopithicines and homo sapiens; intentional burial, large brow ridge, thick cranial vault, reduced tooth size
"Upright man" these hominids became skillful hunters and invented more sophisticated tools for digging, scraping and cutting. They also became the first hominids to migrate from Africa. Also were the first to use fire
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