Botany Final Exam

In land plants, meiosis takes place in the:
a. gametangia
b. antheridia
c. archegonia
d. sporangia
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• Sporophyte has true roots and stems with vascular tissue (rhyniophytes do not have true roots) • Characterized by having microphyll leafLycophytesMicrophyll leafrelatively small with a single unbranched veinMegaphyll leafbranching veinslycopodiumclub mossesSelaginellaspike mossalternation of generationssporophyte -> single type of spore -> typically a bisexual gametophyte -> eggs and sperm most vascular seedless plantshomosporous-> Megaspore -> female gametophyte -> eggs Sporophyte -> Microspore -> male gametophyte -> sperm all vascular seedless plantsheterosporousSelaginella Life Cycle: Heterosporous • Megasporangium produces four __________ (large, protects and provides nutrition to egg and zygote) -> produces __________________________ • Microsporangium produces ________________ (small, numerous and disperse further) -> produces __________________________megaspores megagametophyte microspores microgametophytequillwort heterosporous muddy areas that occasionally become dry CAM photosynthesis in some speciesIsoetesHomosporous or heterosporous? Lycopodium Selaginella Isoetes FernsHomo Hetero Hetero HomoMonilophytes: ________ Sporangium grouped in clusters on a leaf most have "leptosporangium" (thin stalk, wall is one cell layer thick)FernsSporangium group in clusters on leaves called _____SoriWhat are vascular plants?plants that have tube like structures that move water and nutrients to the organs of the plant.are any mosses vascular plants?no• Lycophyte sporophyte is independent of gametophyte at maturity and sporophyte is dominant true/false?trueName 3 examples of lycophyteslycopodium, selaginella, isoetesIn the lycophyte heterosporous life cycle, where does fertilization take place?in the archegoniumThe largest and main group of monilophytes are _____ and they have __________ leaves.ferns megaphyllmost living ferns are (homo/heterosporous)?homosporousA sporangium that arises from a single initial cell and with a wall composed of a single layer of cells. Many ferns have theseLeptosporangiumSelaginella, a lycophyte, is heterosporous. This means that: a. The microsporangium produces megaspores. b. One bisexual gametophyte is produced. c. One type of spore is produced. d. Two types of spores are produced.d-secondary growth -gametophytes not free living -origin of seeds and pollenGymnospermsseed plants with exposed seeds seeds often born on the scales of conesgymnospermsfertilized, mature ovuleseedmegasporangium surrounded by specialized tissue layersmegasporangiumenclosure in which spores are formedsporangiumbaby plant in a box with its lunchseedunicellular (first cell of gametophyte)sporeadvantages of seedsIndependent of water, can go dormant, multiple ways for dispersal, young sporophyte is protected, embryo has nourishmentDisadvantages of seedscostly to makeLeaf "wrapped" around megasporangium for protection (this became the __________________)integument________ is female megasporangium wrapped in integument (protective sporophytic tissue) surrounding the megasporeovule3 components of an ovuleIntegument, megasporangium, megasporeouter most protective layer(s) of an ovule (micropyle opening at one end that allows for pollen tube entry)integument(called a nucellus in seed plants): 2n sporophytic tissue that produces the megaspore mother cell (the megasporocyte) that undergoes meiosismegasporangiumproduct of meiosis from the megasporocyte that undergoes mitosis to produce the megagametophytemegasporegymnosperms: gametophyte is ______________________not free livingfemale gametophyte: maintained in the ___________________________megasporangia____ ___________: pollen (released to travel to female gametophyte for fertilization)male gametophyteafter fertilization, the integuments develop into the: a. seed coat b. ovule c. nucleus d. micropylea________: immature microgametophyte • __________ occurs in microsporangium • ________ in pollen grain produces between 2 and 5 haploid nuclei (tube cell, generative cells, and sterile cells)Pollen meiosis mitosisFour groups of living gymnospermsconifers cycads ginkgo gnetophytes• "cone bearing" trees • ~700 living species, (most abundant of gymnosperms) • All have megaphyll leaves (needle- or scale-like)conifers• Compound, palm-like leaves • Grow slowly and live a long time (1000+ years) • Tissues of many species are highly toxic to humans if ingested • Produce seed cones and pollen cones each on separate plants (dioecious)Cycads• Three genera: Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia • Vessel elements in xylem (unusual in gymnosperms) • Ovules surrounded by fleshy layerGnetophytesWhich of the following statements about gymnosperms is FALSE? a. Gymnosperm means "naked seed." b. All gymnosperms have secondary growth. c. The female gametophyte produces archegonia. d. The male gametophyte produces antheridia.dOrigin of seed plants: Three major innovations 1. All gymnosperms have ______________ growth 2. The gametophyte is not ____________ (gametophyte is dependent) 3. Pollen and _________secondary growth free living seedsNew structures in angiospermsovules ovary fruit flower_____: (enclosed by carpels in ovary) that develop into seedsovules_______: (part of pistil) that develop into fruitovaryprotects and aids in dispersal of mature seedsfruitadvertises to pollenatorsflowerAll angiosperms: 1) produce true roots/stems/leaves, 2) have vessel elements (xylem) and sieve tube elements/companion cells (phloem), 3) produce flowers, 4) undergo double fertilization, and 5) produce fruit. True/false?trueInnovations of angiosperms transport: Fruits and flowers: life cycle:more efficient, pollinator coevolution, more specializedfloral organs are arranged in four whorls (outer -> inner):sepal petal stamen pistilflower that has all four partscompleteflowers with male (stamens) and female (pistil) structuresperfectWhich of the following is the order in which flower parts are arranged, from the outer to inner whorls? a. petals à sepals à stamens à pistil b. sepals à petals à stamens à pistil c. sepals à stamens à petals à pistil d. sepals à petals à pistil à stamensb• microspore mother cell (2n) in anthers goes through meiosis -> produce___________microspores (n)Microspores go through mitosis and develop into _______ ______ (male gametophyte)pollen grainsPistil: may be composed of one or more _________ at the basecarpelsIn angiosperms, carpels are modified leaves that enclose the: a. ovules. b. style. c. stigma. d. pollen.aDouble fertilization is used: a. in all land plants. b. to form polar nuclei. c. to develop an egg cell. d. to create endosperm (nutrition for developing embryo).dWhat are the cells that undergo meiosis?The microspore mother cell and the megaspore mother cell.Angiosperms life cycle: - _______________ is produced in _________: pollen lands on the stigma, hydrates, and germinates (pollen tube grows down the style and towards the ovules)pollen antherAngiosperms life cycle: - When ______ ____ arrives at the _______, the sperm cells are released (one fuses with the egg and the other one fuses with the ______ ______)pollen tube, ovule, polar nucleiAngiosperms life cycle: - The fertilized egg becomes the _________, the first cell of the _____________ generation.zygote, sporophyteAngiosperms life cycle - the sperm cell that fuses with the 2 polar nuclei become ________ (a triploid tissue used as food by the embryo)endospermAngiosperm life cycle: - both male and female gametophytes are so reduced that no _______________ or ____________ are produced.antheridium, archegoniumAll of the following events occur in an ovule EXCEPT: a. The megaspore mother cell goes through mitosis. b. The megaspore mother cell goes through meiosis. c. Fertilization produces an embryo. d. Megagametophyte develops within megasporangium.aan example of a basal angiosperm:amborellathe single characteristic that defines eudicots (all eudicots have it and no other plants have it)tricolpate pollenBasal angiosperms: a. Mostly exhibit modern-day characteristics of angiosperms. b. Have remained static over evolutionary time. c. Only share traits with eudicots. d. Contain living descendants of groups that originated while angiosperms were still a young clade.d- Reticulate venation - Flower parts in 4s or 5s - Whorls - Sepal and tepal distincteudicotsParallel venation - Flower parts in 3s (or sets of) - Whorls - Tepals presentmonocots- Spirals - Numerous flower parts - Tepals present - No flower parts fusedbasal angiospermsWhich of the following is a true statement for monocots? a. Flower parts usually in 4 or 5. b. Pollen grains have one pore. c. Vascular tissue arranged in a ring. d. Net venation in leaf.bWhich of the following have tricolpate pollen? a. Monocots b. Amborella c. Water lily d. Eudicotsddynamic group of angiosperms that evolved early ("young" clade), contain living descendants of several groups of angiosperms, and illustrate ancestral/relictual features of modern-day angiosperms. They exhibit characteristics of both monocots and eudicots and don't "fit" well into either the eudicot and monocot category.Basal angiospermsnet venation, most species have secondary growth, taproot, vascular bundles can be scattered and/or in rings, flower parts often numerous with a spiral arrangement, lack of differentiation between sepal and petal, floral parts rarely fused, two cotyledons, single pore/groove on pollen.characteristics of basal angiospermsnet venation, taproot, stem vascular bundles in rings, flower parts in fours or fives arranged in whorls, fusion of floral parts is common, usually have separate sepal and petal, two cotyledons, and tricolpate pollen.characteristics of eudicotsleaves have parallel veins, absence of secondary growth, fibrous root system, stems have scattered vascular bundles, flower parts in threes arranged in whorls, tepals are common, single cotyledon, and single pore/groove on pollen.characteristics of monocotsWhich one of the following statements about carpels and pistils is correct? a. A flower may have multiple carpels b. A flower may have multiple pistils c. Multiple carpels may fuse into a single pistil d. All of the above are correctdevolved from modified leaves with ovulescarpelsplant biotic interactions: • Plants and pollinators • Plants and bacteria (e.g., rhizobium) • Plants and fungi (e.g., mycorrhiza)mutualismWhich statement about mycorrhiza is false? a. Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a plant b. The fungus fixes atmospheric nitrogen and makes it available to the plant c. Mycorrhiza involves a mutualistic relationship, wherein both partners profit d. The fungal partner gains carbon from its plant partnerbplant biotic interactions: Plant versus herbivoreherbivoryPlants defend themselves using all of the following except: a. Nectar. b. Trichomes. c. Secondary metabolites. d. Extensions of the epidermis.aplant biotic interactions: carnivorous and parasitic plantspredation and parasitismsSuites of floral characters associated with different modes of pollination (flower characteristics that relate to pollinator characteristics)pollenation syndromeIn the rhizobium/legume interaction the bacteria supplies the plant with _____ _________ and the plant supplied the bacteria with ______ ________.fixed nitrogen, fixed carbonIn mycorrhizal interactions, the fungi receive fixed ______ and the plant gets greater access to ________ from the soil. The type of interaction discussed was arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.carbon, nutrientsMoth pollinators are attracted to flowers that: a. emit an odor of decaying flesh. b. open during daylight hours. c. are white and reflect the moonlight. d. provide shelter and protection in a domatia.cconversion of plants or animals to domestic usesdomesticationstudy of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and peopleethnobotanyGenetic Basis of Non-Shattering Grains • __________ __ __________ in most seed crops • Renders a plant species _______ __ ________ for survival and propagation • Often controlled by a small number of key ______hallmark of domestication, dependent on humans, genes3 conventional breeding methodsartificial selection, introgression, genetic modificationsAll the following are traits commonly associated with domesticated crops EXCEPT: a. Self-pollinating b. Increased seed or fruit size c. Enhanced seed dispersal ability d. Uniform ripening and seed germinationcthe genetic differences within a speciesgenetic diversityDomesticated plants have less genetic diversity compared to their wild relatives because: a. of artificial selection. b. wild species continue to evolve to cope with various diseases and growth conditions. c. fewer genes are required for growth under agricultural conditions (e.g., unused genes are lost). d. All of the above.dsingle species with a uniform genetic backgroundmonocultureonly planting seeds from desirable plants to increase their representation and traits in subsequent generations but reduces genetic diversity and production can be time consumingartificial selection: genetic modification of one species by another through hybridization and repeated backcrossing that increases desirable traits of a species but reduces genetic diversity and production can be time consumingintrogressiondesirable genes from one organism are directly inserted into another organism (e.g., nutrients added to plants) that quickly produces desirable traits of a species but with potentially unknown side effects and a reduction in genetic diversitygenetic modificationThe Genetic Modification method of conventional breeding is most accurately described by: a. A method in which desirable genes have been selected for over time through natural selection. b. A method in which desirable genes have been selected for over time through artificial selection. c. A method in which desirable genes from one organism have been directly inserted into another organism. d. A method in which genes have been selected for through backcrossing.cstudy of relationships between living organisms and their physical surroundingsecologyA community consists of all the ______ in a particular area. a. individuals of a single species b. ecosystems c. populations d. habitatscset of conditions in which an organism lives, which includes biotic (living organisms) and abiotic (nonliving, physical phenomena) factors.habitatapplication in restoring the recovery of natural systemsrestoration ecologyapplication in agricultural systemsagroecologyapplication in disease transmissiondisease ecologyClimate change is affecting forest communities in Minnesota by: a. Shifting forest biome boundaries. b. Increasing aspen and tamarack populations. c. Reducing insect infestations (e.g., eastern larch beetle). d. Minnesota is not experiencing the effects of climate change.athe study of past ecological communitiespaleoecologyPaleoecological studies provide insight into: a. How environments have changed with climate in the past. b. How species abundances have changed over time. c. The rate of change in a particular taxon. d. All of the above.dCollecting Sediments: Lake Coring ______ _____ :most common method, longer record, resolution varies (years represented by each sample) ______ _____: less common, shorter core (~one meter), layering is preserved, fine examination is possiblepiston cores, freeze corespreserved materials that can be representative of past climate or the environmentpaleoecological proxyThe "space for time" substitution in paleoecology means that: a. Deeper sediments are usually interpreted as being a younger age b. Deeper sediments are usually interpreted as being an older age c. Deeper sediments cannot be interpreted d. The age of sediments cannot be investigatedban indirect measurement or something else. In paleoecology, a proxy is representative of a response to an environmental change of the past (e.g., pollen representing past vegetation).proxy