Sociology Exam 3

Identify the three major societal shifts that Rank argues are necessary for a realistic and practical understanding of American poverty.
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what proportion of Americans will spend at least one year below the poverty line?60%Be familiar with the ways in which poverty affects all Americans.coming out with our paychecks, tax dollars, jobs arnt as stable as they once wereHow does Rank use the metaphor of a well-known game to describe poverty in America.he uses musical chairs by saying 10 players, but only 8 chairs; disadvantagesWhat are the six systems of inequality?race, ethnicity, class, gender, age, sexual orientation, religion, nationalityUnderstand that our location within the matrix of inequality affects our access to social status (prestige and esteem) and valued material shapes our social interactions and how we are regarded in societyBe familiar with the "fundamental paradox" of American society that Rank identifies at the beginning of the article.America is the wealthiest country on earth but have the highest poverty rates in developed worldsdefine social stratificationa system in which groups of people are distributed hierarchically (in layers) according to their relative access to powerwhat are systems of inequalities?socially constructed identity categories to which societal members accord a great deal of meaningWho does Nick Hanauer (the pillow company owner) suggest are the "true job creators"middle classBe familiar with the general patterns of contemporary class inequalitythe gap between the rich and the poor is now wider than it has ever been in the history of collecting income data in the U.S.define castea social category to which a person belongs involuntarilydefine class systema society's categorization of its people into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth, income, race, education, and power.what are the characteristics of a class systembeing able to move up and down in rank regarding to societysignificance of social mobilityupward mobility and downward mobilitydefine incomethee money recieveddefine wealthstock of assets held by a person or householdwhat does the "shrinking middle class" refer to?growing income and wealth inequality resulting in an economic squeeze on the middle classdefine racerefers to dividing the human species according to physical characteristics that are inheriteddefine genderThe attitudes, behaviors, norms, and roles that a society or culture associated with an individual's sex, thus the social differences between female and maledefine racializedthe process of ascribing ethnic or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group that did not identify itself as such.define socially construction of racethe school of thought that race is not biologically identifiable