96 terms

Anatomy & Physiology Unit 1 (Ch 1-3)

Introduction, Chemistry & Cell bio
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Anatomy
Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts
Physiology
Science dealing with the functions of living things or their organs
Atoms
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Cell
the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
Tissue
group of similar cells that are organized to do a specific job.
Organ
collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
System
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
Organism
An individual living thing
Integumentary system
Contains skin, hair, fingernails and glands; protects the body, regulates body temperature, makes vitamin D and detects sensations
Skeletal system
Contains bones, joints, and cartilage; supports and protects the body, attaches to muscle to aid in movement
Muscular system
Contains muscles; creates movement, posture, and body heat
Nervous system
Contains brain, spinal cord, and nerves; sends and receives nerve impulses, detects changes in the environment
Endocrine system
Contains hormones and glands that produce them; regulates body activities
Cardiovascular system
Contains blood, heart, and blood vessels; Pumps blood throughout the body to carry oxygen and nutrients
Lymphatic/immune systems
Contains lymph, vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils; filters blood, protects against disease-causing microbes
Respiratory system
Contains lungs, pharynx, larynx, and trachea; transfers oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and environment
Digestive system
Contains gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs; breaks down of food and absorbs nutrients
Reproductive system
Contains gonads and associated organs; produce gametes that unite to form a new organism
Urinary system
Contains kidneys, ureters, bladder; produces, stores, and eliminates urine
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
Catabolism
Biological processes which primarily break down large storage and other chemicals, often releasing energy in the process.
Anabolism
the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
Homeostasis
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
Positive Feedback
A physiological control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
Negative Feedback
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.
Disorder
Any abnormality of structure or function
Disease
Specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms
Symptoms
Subjective changes in body functions that are felt by the patient but not apparent to the observer (Ex. pain, nausea, anxiety)
Signs
Objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure (Ex. fever, high blood pressure, rash)
Anatomical position
A standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parallel to each other and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward.
Superior
Toward the head, or the upper part of a structure
Inferior
Away from the head, or the lower part of a structure
Posterior
Nearer to or at the back of the body
Anterior
Nearer to or at the front of the body
Medial
Nearer to the midline
Lateral
Farther from the midline
Proximal
Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk
Distal
Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk
Superficial
Toward or on the surface of the body
Deep
Away from the surface of the body
Protons
A positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
Neutrons
Electrically neutral particle that has the same mass as a proton and is found in an atom's nucleus.
Electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge and almost no mass
Ion
A charged atom
Covalent bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Ionic bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Hydrogen bond
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
Exergonic reaction
A chemical reaction that releases energy
Endergonic reaction
A reaction that requires energy
Catalysts
Chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
Organic
Carbon-containing
Acid
Any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water and has a pH of less than 7
Base
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution when dissolved in water and has a pH of greater than 7
Carbohydrates
Class of organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and act as the main source of energy for the body
Lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Proteins
Compounds that contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; composed of polymers of amino acids and can give structure, energy, regulate processes, assist in muscle contraction, and serve as catalysts
Nucleic acid
A macromolecule composed of the elements C, H, N, O, and P that carries genetic information and is made of a long chain of nucleotides
DNA
A double stranded nucleic acid that forms the genetic code in the nuclei of body cells and regulates most of the cell's activities
RNA
A usually single-stranded nucleic acid that functions in protein synthesis
Transcription
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation
Decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain.
Plasma membrane
A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
Nucleus
Control center of the cell
Selective Permeability
A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Facilitated diffusion
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Active transport
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient
Sodium-potassium pump
A transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell
Endocytosis
Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
Exocytosis
Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
Centrosome
An organelle that contains the centrioles and organizes microtubules during mitosis
Ribosomes
Organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Rough ER
Covered in ribosomes and is responsible for the synthesis and transport of proteins and glycoproteins.
Smooth ER
ER that doesn't contain ribosomes; involved in lipid synthesis and breaking down toxic substances and stores calcium
Golgi complex
Organelle that modifies and sorts proteins
Lysosomes
A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones
Peroxisomes
Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals
Mitochondrion
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur
Alternative splicing
Splicing of RNA transcripts from the same gene in different ways, each of which produces a distinct protein
G1 phase
stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
G0 phase
A nondividing state in which a cell has left the cell cycle.
G2 phase
Cell grows and preps for mitosis
Interphase
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
M phase
Mitosis (the division of DNA) and cytokinesis (the division of cytoplasm and other cellular material) occurs
Prophase
Centrioles move away from each other pushed towards seperate ends, Nucleur membrane disintergrates,. chromotin form chromosomes Longest phase
Metaphase
Centromeres of duplicated chromosomes are aligned at plate. Fully formed spindle attach to the sister chromatids from opposite poles
Anaphase
A stage in mitosis during which the centromeres split and the daughter cells begin to separate.
Telophase
A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense.
Mitosis
Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell.
Meiosis
A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell.
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Inspection
observing the body for any changes that deviate from normal. (Example: Looking in the mouth, ears, or eyes)
Palpation
feeling of the body surfaces with the hands (Example: gently pushing on the abdomen)
Auscultation
listening to body sounds to evaluate the functioning of certain organs, usually with an instrument such as a stethoscope (Example: listening to the heart or lungs)
Percussion
tapping on a body surface with the fingertips and listening to the resulting echo (Example: listening for fluid in the lungs or air in the intestines)