Soil Fertility Final Exam

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large surface area per mass
hold nutrients well
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LowerA soil with a low CEC will have a buffering capacity in comparison to a soil with a high CEC.LessActive acidity in our soils tends to be much than the reserve or potential acidity.СаСОоз NaOH Ca(OH)2Which of the following compounds could be used to neutralize acidity? (Circle all that apply)CaSO4 elemental S FeSO4Which of the following compounds are commonly used to acidify soil? (Circle all that apply)5 tons/acreWhat is the maximum amount of lime that should be added at one time?TrueMost nitrogen comes from the atmosphere under natural, environmental conditions.MineralizationIf you have a C:N ratio of 20:1 (like in alfalfa residue), what process will dominate in the soil?about apply) >50% is in the organic form Some forms are highly mobile it It is needed in higher amounts than PWhich of the following statements are true about soil N? (Circle all that apply)ImmobilizationIf you have a C:N ratio of 80:1 (like in corn), what process will dominate in the soil?Windy High PHWhich one of the following will increase NH3 volatilization? (Circle all that apply)-Nitrification -Uptaken by plants -Clay fixationwhich of the following are potential outcomes of NH4 in the environment? (Circle all that apply)-Low oxygen -High C availability -High NO3-Which of the following factors are needed for denitrification to occur? (Circle all that apply)-Leached -Uptaken by plants NitrificationWhich of the following are potential fates of NO3 in the soil environment? (Circle all that apply)Applying a UAN solution in mid-MarchIn which situation would you recommend the use of a nitrification inhibitor to lessen N losses, if the crop was to be planted in early April?N fixationThe Haber-Bosch process is the chemical equivalence of which biological process?It is needed in a lesser amount than KWhich of the following statements are true about soil P?4.5-5.0 6.5-7.0In which of the two following pH ranges is phosphorus most available?Diffusion: mass flowAbout 80% of P movement is due to ______ while about 20% of P movement to plant roots is due to_____TruePotassium is thought to reduce diseases and infections in crops.2:1 non-expanding claysIn the slowly available pool of potassium, it becomes fixed byHigherLess weathered soils are ______in potassium in comparison to highly weathered soils.ZincWhich micronutrient is a common deficiency with corn and soybeans? It has a deficiency pattern of dark green veins with light tissues between veins and shortening between internodes on the stalk.-It is found in fairly high concentrations in the parent materials -It is not needed in a very high quantity by the plant -We typically add it when we add lime to the soilWhy do we not typically fertilize with calcium as per se in this area? (Circle all that apply)-Magnesium oxide -Dolomitic lime -Magnesium sulfateHow do we typically add Mg fertilizer to soil? (Circle all that apply)-Promotes N fixation nodulation in legumes -Used in making amino acids -Aids in seed productionWhich of the following roles does sulfur play in the plant? (Circle all that apply)MolybdenumWhich micronutrient is highly available at a pH greater than 7?Soybeans CornWhich of the following crops respond well to zinc additions? (Circle all that apply)FeWhich micronutrient is even readily available at a pH of 4?NH3 -high salt contentWhich of the following could cause problems if found in excess around the plant seed? (Circle all that apply)TrueIt is usually not possible to apply all the N needed for plant growth in a band or starter fertilizer applicationMicronutrientsFoliar application is commonly used to apply-Encourages early seedling growth -typically it is more pest resistant -gives more P availabilityWhich of the following would be advantages to using a banded or starter fertilizer? (Circle all that apply)-Can apply larger amounts at one time -Helps distribute nutrients more evenly than banding -Helps to save on labor during plantingWhich of the following statements would be true about broadcast application of fertilizer? (Circle all that apply)PTypically, the only nutrient that can be totally applied in a starter fertilizer is-relatively inexpensive in comparison -it is basically a long term investment -nutrient availability is determined by pHWhich of the following are reasons why lime is not the place to skip on fertilizer costs? (Circle all that apply)maximumMost research is conducted look at the highest possible net returns or__________profitable yield.-expected increase in yield -level of management -additional marketing and/or harvesting costsWhich of the following are important factors in determining profitable rate of plant nutrients? (Circle all that apply)-nutrient concentrations are increased with low CEC soils -higher sand content increases leachingWhich of the following soil characteristic are important in determining nutrient movement in the soil? (Circle all that apply)-highly soluble nutrients are more susceptible to leaching -sodium can cause soils to fall apart - nutrients often move as soil particles move in runoffWhich of the following nutrient properties are important in determining nutrient movement in the soil? (Circle all that apply)FalseAnhydrous ammonia is sold as gas, but is applied in the soil as a liquid.once you start adding fertilizer you will make less and less return because first applicaton Makes the most retunExplain the concept of the Law of Diminishing Returnsapplys fertilizer clöse to seed helos with germination of plant withh fertilizer readily availableName 2 advantages of banding fertilizers. Explain why they would help early plant growth.Base Saturation is the % of cations based on CEC.CEC is ability of the cations to be held. these are the bases of soil fertility.Describe CEC, Base saturation and describe why they are important in soil fertility