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1.) Fossil Record

the ordered array in which fossils appear within layers of sedimentary rocks

2.) Comparative Anatomy

comparison of body structures in different species, which give signs of common descent

convergent evolution

when two different species have adaptations for a common environment, giving them analogous structures (structures that look & function the same way, but have different genetic makeup)

divergent evolution

when you have a common ancestor and different adaptations in different environments leads to new species, but homologous structures (features that often have different functions but are structurally similar because of common ancestry)

3.) Biogeography

the geographical distribution of species

4.) Comparative Embryology

the comparison of early stages of development
the greater number of protein (amino acid sequence) similarity between species, the more likely they share a common ancestor, more closely related

5.) Comparative Molecular Biology

anatomy on the molecular level

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