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Christian History II (Calvin Seminary)
The history of Christianity from the Reformation to present day.
Terms in this set (82)
Basic divisions of the Middle Ages
1. The EARLY was 500-1000. Period of INVASION (three waves in Europe). Barbarians, Muslim and Vikings. Dark Ages -- scarcity of literature and culture.
2. The HIGH was 1000-1300, a time of MONASTIC RENEWAL, PAPACY is Reformed, UNIVERSITIES rise, SCHOLASTICISM causes people to think deeply. Catholic church reached peak POWER and called CRUSADES to recapture Holy Land, bringing the church in contact with NEW PARTS of the world.
3. The LATE was 1300-1500, a time of CRUMBLING and DISINTEGRATION. Christian society comes apart due to the GREAT FAMINE and the PLAGUE (33% of Europe died within 3 years, causing questioning of God).
Nationalism in the Late Middle Ages
1. Europe had been FEUDALIZED into tiny territories or kingdoms.
2. In the LATE middle Ages, they CONSOLIDATED into confederations and nations like France, Spain and England.
3. This sense of national IDENTITY CHALLENGES the papacy.
4. LOYALTY switches to KING more than pope.
5. A French pope had come into power, and he was under the influence of the French king. Later, the papacy split.
Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy
1. Also known as the AVIGNON Captivity.
2. When a French pope came into power (Pope CLEMENT V), he refused to go to Rome and made Avignon, which is in France, the papal CAPITAL.
3. He was under the influence of the FRENCH KING.
4. It would continue to be the capital for most of the century until the papacy split.
1. Reformer who wanted the Bible in the language of the people.
2. Credited with being the first to TRANSLATE the Bible from Latin to ENGLISH.
2. Called the "Morning Star of the Reformation" because he boldly questioned papal AUTHORITY & criticized the sale of INDULGENCES.
4. denied TRANSUBSTANTIATION and spoke out against church HIERARCHIES.
1. BOHEMIAN preacher and professor.
2. Huss attacked forged MIRACLES , TRANSLATED Wycliff's works, and urged the faithful to SEEK Christ in SCRIPTURE INSTEAD of miraculous SIGNS.
3. Huss was then excommunicated (1411) but not silenced.
1. Movement that represented the view that the final authority in the church belonged to a COUNCIL that represented the various views of the NATIONS of Europe.
2. They thought the ORIGINAL authority is given to the council and NOT through the pope.
3. They were critical of the CORRUPTION present in the papacy and the papal split.
Devotionalism & Mysticism
1. Movements that BYPASS THE CHURCH and obtain PERSONAL relationship with God.
2. Devotionalism is the quest for a deep personal RELATIONSHIP with God, UNMEDIATED by the church (Thomas a Kempis).
3. Mysticism is the quest for ACTUAL essential UNION with God (lose yourself as your soul is merged into God).
4. Luther got some of his education from this mindset (before University).
Catherine of Siena
1. She led a strict ascetic life in her own home since 16 years old.
2. She embarked upon an active public life of menial SERVICE, church REFORM, and political DIPLOMACY.
3. Her book The DIALOGUE was her spiritual testament.
4. High among the church's MYSTICS, she was canonized and declared a patron saint,
1. A movement that expressed a new interest in the study of the HUMANITIES during the time of the RENAISSANCE.
2. New interest in the study of ancient LANGUAGES, LITERATURE and HISTORY based on the study of Christian text.
3. From Latin "ad fontes" (back to the sources, back to the ROOTS).
4. They were interested in MORAL living and a well-rounded life.
1. Dutch Renaissance Humanist
2. Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new LATIN and GREEK editions of the New Testament.
3. While he was critical of the abuses within the Church and called for REFORM, he kept his distance from Luther and remained Catholic.
4. Differed with Luther on the issue of FREE WILL, angering those on all sides.
Major branches of 16th century Protestanism
1. Luther (Germany) -> Melanchthon
2. Zwingli (Zurich) -> Bullinger
3. Bucer (modern-day France) -> Calvin
In 1549, Calvin and Bullinger reach The Zurich Consensus over what had divided them (the Lord's SUPPER). This marks the beginning of the single REFORMED tradition... as opposed to LUTERAN movement, which continued on.
What kind of reformed movement the Protestant Reformation really was
1. The Reformed movement was a reformation within Luther's SOUL -- fretting about his own salvation.
2. He is also worried about the people's souls in the same state of lack of ASSURANCE, perhaps headed toward DAMNATION. Church said just do your best and hope for the best.
3. As he encounters the Scriptures he begins to question the practices of the church such as INDULGENCES.
Luther's spiritual-theological breakthrough
1. Struggle within his own SOUL was a long JOURNEY, a process of CHANGE that he experienced.
2. He realized a merciful God gives us righteousness as a GIFT — it's not something we earn or buy. He came to love the word RIGHTEOUSNESS instead of hate it.
3. He studied ROMANS.
The Ninety-Five Theses
1. He didn't dispute penance or the papacy.
2. He was not out to start a schism is the church.
3. His style was very pastoral and was concerned about the state of people's souls who trusted in indulgences rather than in Christ.
1. He sent the list to his local bishop and also put it up on the door of the castle church in WITTENBERG, which was used as a notice board.
3. His intention was to have a small debate, but word quickly SPREAD and copies were made by printers.
Diet of Worms
1. A formal ASSEMBLY in 1521, held in Worms, Germany which addressed the issues brought up by Martin Luther with the Catholic Church.
2. Pope Leo X had tried to refute Luther's 95 Theses.
2. Luther DEFENDED his doctrines before Charles V, and he would not recant.
3. Luther stated that was convinced by Scripture and clear reason, that he did not TRUST the Pope or church councils. He could not violate conscience, which was bound to the WORD.
4. His teachings were later formally CONDEMNED in an edict from Worms, and he was ordered to be captured and punished as a HERETIC.
Zwingli's method of reform
0. Known as the "PEOPLES PRIEST" in Switzerland, he spoke out against clerical ABUSES and achieved widespread reforms.
1. Had HUMANIST roots, desiring to return to early sources, particularly the N.T. and use that as a church MODEL.
2. SOLA SCRIPTURA - You allow only what Scripture ALLOWS
3. TOTAL SCRIPTURA - Continue to use O.T. unless expressly replaces in N.T. (infant baptism, new Israel, etc.).
4. BROAD REFORM beyond Luther's scope. All of life and SOCIETY (political, economic, etc.) needs reform.
General themes in Anabaptist theology
1. Biggest and most influential group of Radical Reformers.
2. Anabaptists are the parents of four movements: Amish, Mennonite, the Brethren and the Hutterites. (Modern Baptists are not the descendants of the anabaptists.)
3. They BANNED INFANT baptism, as salvation comes from faith, so you need to be re-baptized when you believe.
4. The wanted to SEPARATE themselves from the EVIL of the world so they could live purely.
5. No war, no voting, no serving in government.
6. They also developed the CONGREGATIONAL GOVERNMENT, where all members took on the decisions of the church.
Comparison of Calvin and Luther
1. Main difference between Calvin & Luther is in regards to the Eucharist and the presence of Christ in communion.
2. Luther said Christ is present with the elements (consubstatiation).
3. Zwingli and Calvin said Christ is only spiritually present, so Luther called Zwingli Satan and a pig.
1. Calvin's work that attempts to set out the beliefs of PROTESTANTISM drawn from the Bible alone. "the whole SUM of godliness and whatever it is necessary to know about saving DOCTRINE."
3. In The Institutes, Calvin outlined his views on the church, the sacraments, justification, liberty, and political government. S.J.L.G.
4. His unique and overarching theme is God's SOVEREIGNTY .
5. In this and later editions, Calvin developed the doctrines of predestination, or election and he argued for the INDEFECTABILITY OF GRACE —that is, grace will never be withdrawn from the elect.
1. He was a theologian and physician.
2. He came to the conclusion that in order to win Jews and Muslims to Christ, the doctrine of the Trinity had to be revised, and to this end he published DE TRINITATIS ERRORIBUS(1531).
3. Immediately attacked by both Roman Catholics and Reformers.
Why Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church
1. Henry VIII wanted the Pope to approve the DIVORCE from Catherine of Aragon because she could not produce a male HEIR.
2. He wanted to marry the YOUNGER Anne BOLEYN instead.
3. Roman Emperor Charles V pressured the pope not to grant the divorce.
4. When the pope did not, he married her anyway and declared the church under HIS RULE.
4. He CREATED a new church that would recognize his marriage, the Anglican church, and made himself head of it.
Comparison of the beginnings of the Lutheran and English Reformations
Luther's was born out of Scripture.
England's was born out of politics.
Luther's was care for people.
England's was care for power, not theology.
The English Reformation under Edward VI
1. Sickly young king of England, son of Henry VIII.
2. Ruled 6 years, died at age 15.
3. His regencies were very Protestant.
3. The church moved away from Catholicism, including the writing of the BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER.
The English Reformation under "Bloody Mary"
1. Mary I was Henry's and Anne Boleyn's daughter who reigned after Edward VI died.
2. She was a staunch Catholic, and she brought the church all the way back to rejoin the Roman Catholic Church.
3. All were back under the authority of the papacy. Those who refused were killed.
Elizabeth I's "Via Media"
1. Queen Elizabeth I was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine, who reigned after Bloody Mary died.
2. She reigned for 45 years and a SHREWD politician who found a "MIDDLE ROAD" between the theologies of Rome and Geneva.
3. She gave the liturgy and polity a CATHOLIC flavor.
4. But she made doctrine PROTESTANT.
5. Greatest challenge of nationalism to the RCC so far -- an entire nation left, with an alternate pope!
1. Those who became Protestant under Edward, fled under Mary, returned under Elizabeth.
2. They were DISSATISFIED with the via media because it didn't meet the REGULATIVE PRINCIPLE.
3. Wanted to PURIFY the Church of England by riding of it remaining Catholic worship practices and polity (Queen as head of church).
4. They lost a civil war and do not become the state church, but are allowed to exist alongside it.
1. The Church of England split into the Puritan and Anglican parties.
2. The Puritans split by government form.
3. Some Congregationalists wanted to separate.
4. A small group of separatist Congregational Puritans emigrated to the Netherlands and then ended up leaving the Netherlands and settling on the coast of Massachusetts on Plymouth in 1620. They formed the Plymouth Colony.
5. Non-separatists came later and formed Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and eventually merged.
6. They believed they were a city on a hill, fashioned as the NEW O.T. ISRAEL.
Ignatius of Loyola
1. A Spanish SOLDIER is the founder of the JESUITS, a 16th century monastic order that arose to fight for renewal in the church.
2. Ignatius set it up like a military with a HIERARCHY.
2. He put the members, who were all priests, at the disposal of the POPE, but put them on the front lines of the COUNTER REFORMATION.
3. The Jesuits tried to win back Protestants through EDUCATION.
Council of Trent
1. A council called by the Catholic church in 1545-63.
2. Sola fide explicitly condemned (Counter Reformation).
3. Reforms cleaned up the Catholic church (Catholic Reformation).
4. Seminaries established in ever diocese.
5. Sparked spiritual revival and missionary ZEAL.
6. BROKE with Protestants for hundreds of years and stopped Protestantism's advance.
Relationship between Catholic Reformation and Counter Reformation
0. Some view it as a REACTION to the Protestant Reformation (a "counter-reformation").
1. But more accurately, Late Middle Ages reform movements (humanism, coniliarism, mysticism, devotionalism) resulted in BOTH the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation.
2. Popes Paul III and Paul IV aimed to PURIFY the church. MONASTIC orders like the Jesuits also worked for renewal.
3. In 1540s, the RCC does turn some of its zeal AGAINST Protestants.
Wars of Religion
1. The shadow side of the Reformation was that the various sides fought in wars.
2. In the 1520's there were PEASANT wars in GERMANY, as anabaptists incited peasants to rise up against their lords. And in the 1540's CATHOLICS and Lutherans fought.
3. In the 1530's in SWITZERLAND, ZWINGLI died on the battlefield, fighting the Catholic-Protestant war.
5. In the Netherlands, the 80 Years War was fought for liberation from Catholic Spain that controlled the land.
6. In France and Scotland, Calvinists and Catholics fought.In Engalnd, ANGLICANS and PURITANS fought.
8. From 1618 to 1648, the THIRTY YEARS War engulfed the entire region in Catholic vs. Protestant fighting.
1. In 1550-1650, Protestants used scholastic methodology to create their systematic theology.
2. Protestants organize and SYSTEMATIZE the insights of the Reformation.
3. Great Confessions are written (Belgic, Heidelberg, Westminster).
4. Various groups write against each other.
Enlightenment Religion (Deism)
1. By the 1650's people were tired of religious wars.
2. REASON, philosophy and science take over.
3. VALUES - autonomy, progress, toleration.
4. Deism is a form of Enlightenment religion. In it, God is removed from creation and is impersonal.
5. Deism says everything we can know about God we can learn from nature.
1. One of THREE STREAMS of Protestant Revival during the Enlightenment (1650-1800).
2. PHILIP SPENER called for a reformation of the REFORMATION and became the father of pietism.
3. "Pia" in Latin means heart-felt.
4. Preaching is not enough, solitary reading is not enough, small groups are necessary -- little churches in the church ("conventicles").
5. Refugees from Moravia came to Germany and became pious and sent out a great missionary movement.
1. A Puritan preacher who had a critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening, and oversaw some of the first revivals in 1733-35 in MASSACHUSETTS.
Regarded as the leading theologian of his day and one of the GREATEST thinkers America has yet produced.
2. He championed CALVINISM.
3. He insisted that SIN was INHERENT ANTAGONISM against God, and that salvation meant a radical change of the heart that was totally dependent upon the absolute SOVEREIGNTY of God.
4. His most famous sermon during the Great Awakening was "SINNERS in the hands of an angry God" causing a local AWAKENING.
Characteristics of Protestant Evangelicalism
1. Biblicism - high view of Scripture and interpreting it rightly
2. Crucicentricism - high view of the cross and the atonement
3. Coversionism - emphasis on personal conversion, a new birth
4. Activism - emphasis on channeling the energy of lay people who serve after conversion
Comparison of First and Second Great Awakenings
1. Each time there was a desire to purify and reform, to return to what the church should be. Revival comes from the church being in a state of decline.
2. Whitfield was a great preacher who believed in education and ESTABLISHED colonial COLLEGES.
3. Whitfield's CRITICS said he was too feeling-centered, not enough deeds.
4. Both marked by REVIVALS and emphasis on TEACHING.
5. First Awakening: George WHITFIELD, EMOTIONAL, revival-like sermons and preaching.
6. Second Awakening: As people move away from traditional homelands, they must search for a sense of COMMUNITY. This is where newer sects gain increased membership: METHODISTS & BAPTISTS
1. The father of modern REVIVALISM and leader in the SECOND Great Awakening (1825-35).
2. He worked to promote SOCIAL reforms, such as abolition of slavery and equal education for women and African Americans.
3. Rejected OLD CALVINISM and emphasized the will in salvation.
4. His preaching and teaching stressed the PERFECTIBILITY of human nature and society, and the need for Christians to apply their faith to DAILY living.
Impact of the slavery issue on churches in the United States
1. Many African slaves were required to CONVERT to Christianity and to worship.
2. Yet many embraced the sense of hope and LIBERATION in Christianity.
3. Due to worship restrictions, many began their own churches and due to SEGREGATION the church became the center of social life gatherings.
Why it took Protestants so long to develop a global vision
1. Busy reforming instead of expanding initially.
2. The Protestants eliminated many MONASTERIES which were most mission minded and focused on internally reforming the church and articulating its doctrines.
3. The theological factor that the great commission was only attributed to the APOSTLES and that Jesus was coming soon (in their view).
4. Lastly, they did not have the political and economic power of countries tied to CATHOLICISM. The church was run by the state and captive to its agenda.
Why global Protestant missions mushroomed in the 19th century
Never had any set of ideas been propagated over such a great distance by so many agents supported by so many donors! Why?
1. EUROPEAN COLONIAL EXPANSION
2. TRANSPORTATION technology
3. WORLD PEACE (Pax Britannica)
4. REVIVAL (Finney's Second Great Awakening)
5. FORMATION OF MISSIONARY SOCIETIES - no bureaucracy with ties to state
6. ENTRANCE OF WOMEN & STUDENTS INTO THE MISSIONARY FORCE
7. NEW METHODS - dressing like people, adapting their lifestyles, moving inland
1. At Berlin, he was a PROFESSOR of theology and also MINISTER of the Trinity Church.
2. His greatest work, "THE CHRISTIAN FAITH" (1821), was the first attempt to write an ecumenical SYSTEMATIC theology for the two churches.
3. His collected writings fill some thirty volumes, dividing almost equally into sermons, theology, and philosophical writings.
4. It was his ideal to BRING TOGETHER the academic world, the church, the state, and family life. (A.C.S.F.)
5. His theology steered a MIDDLE course between traditional Protestant theology and the philosophical theology.
6. He could no longer regard Scripture as the INSPIRED Word of God; but neither could he embrace a purely philosophical approach
Definition of Protestant Liberalism
1. Protestant liberalism was a movement in Protestant theology in 1860-1920 that attempted to ACCOMMODATE traditional Christianity to new developments in the 19th century.
2. They felt it had to ADAPT, adjust, etc. to be both Christian and an INTELLIGENT modern person).
3. Adapted to ROMANTICISM, HIGHER CRITICISM and DARWINISM.
1. DEEDS matter more than creeds.
2. EXPERIENTIAL emphasis as the foundation of Christianity.
3. Often drawing wisdom from different religious traditions (PLURALISTIC).
4. Different religions are cultural expressions of interacting with the SAME DIVINE nature.
Theological Emphases of Liberalism
1. GOD is love, kindness, mercy, not cruel or just. Emphasizes the eminence of God, who is present within us.
2. HUMANITY - Emphasizes GOODNESS and DIGNITY.
3. CHRIST - Humanity emphasized over divinity. He is a super-human. What it looks like to be truly human. A person with the perfect experience of God (God-consciousness).
1. Pastor in NYC who was known as the father of the "SOCIAL gospel."
2. Advocated thinking more COLLECTIVELY instead of individualistically.
3. There is more to sin and salvation — there are INSTITUTIONS, society, the way we function collectively that are permeated with sin (OT PROPHETS)
4. Sinful society makes sinful people.
1. A movement WITHIN American Protestant LIBERALISM, 1870s-1920s (Civil War to WWI), a period of time when 90% of wealth was held by 10% of the population, leading to SLUMS, poverty, crime, unemployment, labor conflict, strikes, low WAGES, child labor, etc.
2. Sought to develop a Christian RESPONSE to the rapid social changes of the period.
3. Used Christian VALUES to improve the living conditions of the POOR.
4. Asked questions about the basic social and economic STRUCTURES of society (free enterprise system.
Pope Pius IX
1. In 1854, he declared the dogma of the IMMACULATE Conception largely on his own initiative.
2. In 1864, he issued the syllabus of errors.
3. Vatican I retroactively validated this and declared the INFALLIBILITY of the pope in 1870.
4. He ruled from Rome even though it was occupied by the Italians.
Immaculate Conception of Mary
1. The dogma that 'from the first moment of her conception the Blessed Virgin Mary was kept free from all stain of original sin' (by merits of Jesus Christ).
2. Biblical support has been found for the doctrine in GEN. 3:15 and LUKE 1:28.
3. The argument from tradition is taken from the teaching of the Fathers regarded Mary as the 'NEW EVE' corresponding to Christ as the 'NEW ADAM'.
Syllabus of Errors
1. In 1864, Pope Pius IX issued a diatribe against all the errors of the ENLIGHTENMENT and MODERNITY.
2. Religious TOLERATION is wrong.
3. Primacy of REASONS is wrong.
4. STATE-run EDUCATION is wrong.
5. Separating the church from the state is wrong. The church should rule the state!
1. In 1869, Pope PIUS IX called the First Vatican Council to address the CRISIS OF FAITH that he perceived assailing the Catholic Church.
2. While it dealt with many ADMINISTRATIVE issues, it most famously issued the SYLLABUS OF ERRORS.
3. Retroactively established the doctrine of IMMACULATE CONCEPTION.
4. It helped to establish the INFALLIBILITY of the Pope (special apostolic authority when teaching).
1. Swiss Reformed pastor who wrote a COMMENTARY on Romans in 1919 and began the NEO-ORTHODOXY movement.
2. In this work he revived Pauline and Reformation themes that had been muted or omitted in liberal theology—the SOVEREIGNTY of God, the finitude and SINFULNESS of man, ESCHATOLOGY, and God's JUDGEMENT on human institutions and culture. S.S.E.J.
3. Barth's Church Dogmatics is by far the most DETAILED Protestant exposition of Christian doctrine to have appeared since the Reformation.
Definition of Neo-Orthodoxy
1. Liberal theology had sought to ACCOMMODATE Christian thought to new developments. This movement said the GOSPEL had been lost.
2. A return to the themes and emphases of Protestant Scholasticism or Orthodoxy (1550-1700).
3. Still holds modern views (Bible is errant and full of human errors, fall wasn't HISTORICAL event, no general revelation exists, etc.).
4. It asserts that the Bible becomes the Word of God when it SPEAKS to an individual personally (only a WITNESS to the real Word of God -- CHRIST).
Major Themes in Neo-Orthodoxy
1. SOVEREIGNTY and transcendence of God. He is wholly other.
2. Radical SINFULNESS of human nature. We are in rebellion, and God is in judgment. Sin is pervasive.
3. The Bible has a very important part in the divine revelation process. Through preaching and reading Scripture, CHRIST becomes God's REVELATION to us. Personal, but not objective.
Definition of American Fundamentalism
1. Movements that arose to stave off LIBERALISM inside denominations.
2. Sometimes called militantly anti-modernist.
3. Focuses on the BIBLE is the primary authority of the church.
4. They created FIVE fundamentals that were doctrinal statements ministers had to affirm.
5. The name comes from these fundamentals and was also the title of several articles published by Benjamin WARFIELD between 1910 and 1915.
The five "fundamentals" of American Fundamentalism
1. Inerrancy of Scripture
2. Virgin birth of Christ
3. Substitutionary atonement
4. Bodily resurrection
5. Miracles of Christ
-- All focus on supernatural, which modernity had tried to take away
1. In 1925, substitute high school teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's law against teaching EVOLUTION.
2. The trial was a circus in Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925, where William Jennings Bryan defended the Bible in court. Also known as the "MONKEY trial."
3. Seen as fundamentalist vs. modernist.
4. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100, but it was overturned on a technicality.
Pope John XXIII
1. Pope for only five years 1958-1963.
2. 77 years old -- low expectations.
3. Called Vatican II with the goal of updating (addiornamento).
1. An Italian term meaning RENEWAL or "bringing up to date."
2. Policy of Pope John XXIII, who called Vatican II.
3. Updated view of church, Pope, Scripture, Worship & Eucharist (next card).
1. A council called by Pope John XXIII in 1962 in St. Peter's Cathedral. Over 2,000 delegates from all over the world!
2. Produced SIXTEEN 16 documents, not changing doctrine, but UPDATING emphases.
3. CHURCH now seen as the community and the people of God rather than the institutional hierarchy
4, POPE now seen as first among equals — the college of bishops
5. Encouraged laypeople to read SCRIPTURE
6. WORSHIP in the vernacular, not Latin, with the priest facing the people, lay people being involved
7. EUCHARIST in both kinds (bread and wine for the people)
Theologies of Liberation
1. After WWII, Protestantism had split into liberal and conservative branches.
2. Liberals split into mainline churches and NEO-ORTHODOX branches.
3. Out of neo-orthodox comes liberation theology.
4. God identifies with the poor and oppressed and particular social CAUSES.
5. Christians have a duty to participate in various MOVEMENTS (feminist, black, etc.).
6. Tillich and Boltmann are two GERMAN theologians who influenced it.
The Ecumenical Movement
1. The movement in the Church towards the recovery of the unity of all believers in Christ, transcending differences of creed, ritual, and polity.
2. This aspiration can be traced in various forms from NT times, but has never been so potent as in the 20th CENTURY.
3. The modern ecumenical movement may be dated from the EDINBURGH Missionary Conference of 1910, though this itself owed much to earlier movements which prepared the way.
World Missionary Conference, Edinburgh
1. Meeting in Edinburgh in 1910 with 1188 delegates primarily of white men.
2. It marked the growing awareness that churches needed to work together in COMMON mission "to EVANGELIZE this world in this generation."
3. It helped to spark and continue the growth of the ECUMENICAL movement.
World Council of Churches
1. A council of churches formed from the ecumenical movement and as a result of the catalyst from the EDINBURGH conference.
1. The view that the Bible is a religious book focusing on SALVATION.
2. It's PURPOSE is to save and it is INFALLIBLE in that purpose.
3. But that DOES NOT MAKE IT INERRANT in all its statements, especially in scientific or historical statements.
1. A neo-evangelical group founded by televangelist Jerry FALWELL.
2. Goal of exerting POLITICAL pressure for conservative issues.
3. Although bipartisan, it had more influence in the REPUBLICAN party, and its formation coincided with the rise of Ronald REAGAN to the presidency.
20th-century global shift in Christianity
1. Much of the growth of Christianity has shifted from the WESTERN world to the Global SOUTH and EAST.
2. Some of this is due to LIBERATION theology that works with the poor in many countries.
3. Yet much more is tied to the explosive growth of PENTECOSTALISM which has grown to about one-fourth of all Christians.
Three waves of Pentecostalism
1. Holiness churches had broken off in the mid-1800's to focus on avoiding worldliness. They strove for full consecration and identified a baptism of the Holy Spirit similar to what happened on Pentecost. Need third blessing as well (tongues).
2. The first wave happened when they formed their own DENOMINATIONS -- the ASSEMBLIES OF GOD and the CHURCH OF GOD IN CHRIST. AIMEE SEMPLE McPHERSON started the ANGELUS TEMPLE in a huge arena in 1923 and founded the International Church of the FOURSQUARE Gospel.
3. Second wave is when the CHARISMATIC MOVEMENT of NEO-PENTECOSTALISM began seeping into existing denominations. (They no longer left but STAYED in their denominations and in the Catholic church in the 1960's and 70's).
4. Third wave was from the 1980's onward. John WIMBER founded VINEYARD. Emphasizes spiritual warfare on a personal and larger level. Emphasizes gift of PROPHECY over healing and tongues. Led to animal sounds, holy laughter, etc.
Why Pentecostalism has grown so rapidly in the Global South
1. They're very gift-oriented, not education-oriented. The GIFTS are enough to qualify for service.
2. Appeal of God being PRESENT and manifesting in powerful ways today.
3. Where there is a strong sense of the DEMONIC (as in Africa), this way of thinking is more relevant. (Pentecostalism is equipped to deal with spiritual warfare.)
4. Pentecostal worship is more EXPRESSIVE, and in other parts of the world, other cultures are very expressive.
5. It is concerned with the common person. EVERYONE is gifted and important.
Different forms of Eastern Christianity
2. The Eastern Orthodox churches have 14 equal, independent branches, each with his own head that recognize the patriarch Constantinople as the highest authority.
1. They all trace back to the COUNCIL of CHALCEDON in 451, which debated about the natures of Christ.
2. The ORIENTAL Orthodox church holds to one nature of Jesus Christ (MONOPHYSITE).
3. The NESTORIAN churches say Jesus is two persons -- only two churches like this.
4. The EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES say Christ has two natures in one person (CHALCEDON's CONCLUSION), and they follow Eastern LITURGY but recognize the Pope in Rome as their highest authority.
ESSAY: Relevance of the study of the history of Christianity for persons entering some form of Christian ministry
1. History is not just dates, names and facts from the past. It is personal DEVELOPMENT that changes us.
2. It imparts knowledge (what) and WISDOM (how). It helps us overcome CONDESCENSION toward the past.
3. It gives COURAGE to meet today's challenge and a MORAL COMPASS to help us steer the ship.
4. We learn from BEST and WORST - what to do and not to do.
1. We become LESS JUDGMENTAL of those who aren't like us as we LEARN THEIR STORY.
2. We see how the church been AFFECTED by and ADAPTED to different CONTEXTS will help us engage and be more SENSITIVE to how ministry should be done contextually (preaching, evangelism, social services, organization).
3. We become less ARROGANT about the past as we SEE BEYOND our own story.
1. The story of Christian history is the story of the fulfillment of the GREAT COMMISSION -- making disciples of all nations. (Already pushing out in first 100 years. Long term fulfillment NOW HAPPENING.)
2. As it grows, how is it influencing and being INFLUENCED by the culture around it?
Missionary lessons learned
Early Catholic missionary zeal:
0. Read in Latin to the Native Americans and said Peter gave their land to Spain.
1. What are the values and dangers of incorporating indigenous practices into Christianity?
2. The missionaries who didn't bother learning the culture or language were not successful (kicked out of Ethiopia and Western India for trying to bring papal authority).
3. Missionaries who engaged in the slave trade lost all credibility.
4. But at what point does an indigenous practice violate the Gospel? What do you have to refute?
5. We must translate concepts so they are meaningful and applicable in different culture's usages.
Revival lessons learned
The promise and peril of preaching for revival seen in Whitfield.
Should we preach for revival?
Are revival weeks biblical? Do we have a need to jump-start our faith every few weeks?
Is a preacher's charisma a long-term detriment.
There will always be critics.
Caution Against Unbalance:
Individual at expense of community
Feeling at expense of thinking
Inner life vs. Service
External Practice of Holiness vs. Internal Piety
1. Rooted in 19th century Protestant liberalism and 18th century Enlightenment Religion which de-emphasized dogmatics that divide. Deeds, not creeds.
2. Evangelical Revival of 18th century brought various factions together (Great Awakening). Focus on spiritual experience.
3. Protestant Missionary Movement of 19th century required cooperation of denominations, and missionaries had camaraderie.
Western Mission in the 20th Century
1st HALF - LACK OF SUCCESS
1. Theological Liberalism had had them joining with other religions. Loss of urgency in the Gospel.
2. Two World Wars were a blow to the authority of the West.
3. Decolonization was the dismantling of colonial empires leading to isolationism. Throwing out colonizers = throwing out missionaries (seen as spies).
4. Rise of communism as rival religion and the Iron Curtain to Christians.
2nd HALF -- SUCCESS
1. Europe ravaged by WWII, capacity down.
2. US becoming superpower. WWII forced us to see the world and see the need, as well as develop skillz (Betty Greene founded the Mission Aviation Fellowship in 1956 to fly into countries).
African American Christianity
1. Developed out of history of slavery.
2. Racism in churches led to separate churches for black people.
3. Church was the place for fellowship and the center of black society (not the ice cream parlor).
4. Marcus Garvey wanted blacks to have their own country (NATIONALISM) and for them to go back to Africa.
5. W.E.B. Du Bois favored integration and ASSIMILATION (attend white schools and become intellectual elite).
6. Martin Luther King, Jr. wanted desegregation, integration, RECONCILIATION, equal rights.
7. James Cone's BLACK POWER movement. Struggle against unjust white power.
1300-1500 Late Middle Ages
Bubonic Plague and Famine -> Where is God? How do we understand this? Fear of death?
Nationalism, Conciliarism, Humanism, Devotionalism, Mysticism -> Prot. & Cath. Reformations -> Jesuits -> Papal Reform Efforts
King Henry VIII needs and heir, Roman emperor pressures pope not to let him divorce his aunt -> Church of England breaks off from Catholic church
Henry VIII -> Edward VI -> Mary I -> Elizabeth I -> Anglican/Puritan/Pilgrims
Luther struggles with death and assurance -> 95 Theses -> They are widely distributed due to printing press
No Protestant expansion due to church under state control, bad theology, closing monasteries.
Scholasticism, Counter Reformation, Protestant Orthodoxy, Religious Wars
Catholic Expansion via subjugation, dealing with syncretism, seizing land
Tired of Fighting -> Enlightenment Religion (Age of Reason)
End of church dominance
1. 1650-1800 Catholic church declined, losing influence as secular society moved God, the Bible and the Church tradition to the margins.
2. 1789 - French Revolution got rid of nobility and God
3. 1800's - Catholic church comes back in backlash harkens back to the old order (PIUS IX, Syllabus, Immaculate, Infallibility).
Evangelicalism reflects the Enlightenment in that it focuses on the individual and the emphasis on the decision (I choose for God or against God). It also reflects the Enlightenment's practicality (Christian morality).
Colonization (Spain, Portugal, etc.) and Trade
Age of Reason led to end of church dominance.
Church rages back with revival!
German Pietism -> mission movement
British Revival (Evangelicalism) -> Wesley's Methodism (born again experience, simple teaching, purity)
Great Awakenings -> Colleges -> emotional focus
Collapse of Puritan canopy
Dream of City on a Hill floundered
Engaging vs. Living as an Alien?
Spener called for a reformation of the reformation (convenenticals, etc.).
Romanticism, Higher Criticism, Darwinism -> Liberalism (1860-1920, experiential, pluralistic)
Industrial Revolution, Working Conditions, Wealth Distribution -> Social Gospel
Revivalism, Missions, and Liberalism -> Ecumenicalism (no dogmatics)
French Revolution had removed nobility and God.
Catholic Church fires back with Syllabus of Errors (Pius IX).
Rapid Protestant expansion
Protestant Missionary Movement
Mission Boards, Students, Women
Fundamentalism fights back against liberalism in denominations
Neo-Orthodoxy reforms liberalism from the inside
Liberalism hurts missions, as does WWI & WWII, decolonization, communism, etc.
But people see the world and get good training.
Vatican II Pope John XXIII pursue updating (church worship Scripture pope, Eucharist).
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Christian History 1 (Calvin Seminary)
Church History 1 Calvin Seminary
Systematic Theology 2 - Calvin Seminary
Heidelberg Catechism brief study
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