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Terms in this set (96)
1948 problem in zinc works factory
poisons town that was then cast aside as the clean up and sustainable principles were deemed "too expensive"
Silent Spring (1962)
Book written by Rachel Carson, a Marine biologist who warned of the misuse of pesticides and their negative affects on the environment.
1972 UN Conference
1st worldly conference about environmental issues
Bruntland Report 1987
discussed the role of the economy in sustainability; discussed the needs of the poor and limits of technology
Earth Summit 1992 Rio
limiting global temperature increase; discussed how developing countries are inherently sustainable.
Kyoto Protocol (1997)
controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries
(mission was to reduce green house gasses)
Copenhagen Summit 2009
limiting global temperature increase; discussed how developing countries inherently sustainable.
2015 Paris Agreement
achieved universal and legal agreement to stop global warming and keep it at 2 degrees Celsius
2019 Green New Deal
introduced by AOC and Ed Markey calling for a "national mobilization" to transform American economy into a green system
reflects directly on the climate, site, and/or passive optimizations of buildings; deep connection between ecological virtue and interior life.
a measure of direct emissions gases that cause climate change; the amount of CO2 which is emitted
any type of emission of gas which leads to the entrapment of infrared radiation which warms the planet. When there is more greenhouse gas in the air, it holds more hear, which leads to global warming.
a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants
reuse discarded objects or material in such a way as to create a product of a higher quality or value than the original.
Net zero design
building which produces as much energy as it uses over the course of a year, combining (1) exemplary passive building design to minimize energy requirements and (2) renewable energy systems that meet these reduced energy needs.
A practice in which companies promote their products as environmentally friendly when in truth the brand provides little ecological benefit.
the continued acceleration of changes affecting humanity and the planet is coupled today with a more intensified pace of life and work
human society strongly influenced by overconsumption of goods. The term describes a critical view of excessive production and items that are cradle to rave or disposable
the process of converting waste materials or useless products into new materials or products of lesser quality and reduced functionality
society displaced by global warming impacts which directly affect their living environments
Cradle to Cradle
An approach in which all things are applied to a new use at the end of a useful life.
1. Basic Building Design (60%)
2. Passive Systems (25%)
3. Mechanical Systems (15%)
What are the 3 tiers of sustainability?
Basic Building design
heat rejection, retention, avoidance, orientation of building, color etc.
natural energies such as daylighting, clerestories, ventilation, shading
solar panels, thermal heat pump
Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology
the SUN a solution and a problem must design WITH and FROM
The __________ is a solution and a problem; must design __________ and _____________.
measure and sensible heat
the heat we can feel and measure with a thermometer
stored in a substance resulting in change of temperature
heat/electricity is directly transmitted through material
transfer of heat through fluids like air or water
energy transmitted through space requiring line of sight between objects.
amount of heat required to raise temperature measured in BTU/ft^2
the atmosphere is warmed more efficiently by outgoing longwave radiation, than by incoming shortwave radiation. Therefore, as the ground is heated by incoming solar radiation, the atmosphere will be warmed sometime after by outgoing radiation from the ground.
The amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit
a measure of the insulting quality of a material, indicates a greater ability to insulate a space, preventing heat transfer through the material.
an indicator of how well a window resists conduction. The rate of heat conductivity is indicated by the ________ of a window assembly, lower value greater windows resistance to conductive heat flow and the better its insulating value.
amount of water that the air can hold humidity ratio
temperature measured with a standard thermometer
The temperature at which condensation begins (top of psychometric curve)
the pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid
actual amount of water in the air
What is the standard temperature what do numbers above or below this represent?
Heating Degree Days
anything under 65 degrees 55 = 10 _________
cooling degree day
anything above 65 degrees 67 = 2 ______
Using the energy of the sun to heat one's home or space
response to heat regulates planetary temperature changes
Regional environmental systems - have innate patterns of climate variability
northern regions on all sides so that when the leave fall for winter, the heat will be absorbed
(North facade, provide shading all year round)
Where should evergreens go?
a measure of design that ensures construction and operation of buildings will no longer require the consumption of fossil fuel energy or emission of green house gases.
Heat Island Effect
the temperature differential between an a natural environment and man made as exceedingly high.
too hot = killing of species indigenous to the ecological area.
very local set of climatic conditions
(near water, in mountains, heat island)
a variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands of years. most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind.
the release of a substance (usually gas) into the atmosphere
the five physical components that are responsible for the climate and it variations
what are the 5 components of climate systems?
the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation.
science of sound; quality that makes a room easy or hard to hear in. (production control, transmission, reception and effect of sound)
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
organic chemical compounds such as carbon that become vapors at typical atmospheric temperatures
an applied science focused on the design and arrangements of items which people use in order to improve, sustain, or create safety utilization.
a collection of reflected sound waves from the surfaces of an enclosure created when sound or signal is reflected.
Internally dominated building
densely populated building with high activity and/or energy intense equipment
sparsely populated buildings with little activity or equipment
the delivery rate of solar radiation per unit of horizontal surface
The illumination of the interior of buildings by natural light.
it is the greatest volume you can build on a site that will not shade nearby sites during a given time period
the sites exposure to the sun during a given period. this exposure enables the utilization of solar radiation mainly for radiation but also for daylighting.
angle of sun running around the edge of the stereographic diagram; horizontal position of the sun.
circular dotted lines that run from the center of the diagram: elevation
start on the eastern side of the graph and run to the western side and represent the path of the sun in one particular day of the year.
hour lines shown as figure-eight type line that intersect the date lines and represent the position of the sun at a specific hour of the day.
a passive solar system in which the sunlight falls onto thermal mass which is positioned between the glazing and the space to be heated such a a trombe wall.
design and construction techniques which help a building make use of solar energy by non-mechanical means, as opposed to active solar techniques
power sources that are replenished in a short time
power consumed by all the processes associated witht he production of a building, from mining and processing of natural resources to manufacturing, transport and product delivery.
tracking a building's energy and water use and using standard metric to compare the building's performance against and its peers nationwide
the power possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself.
the power a body possesses when it is brought into motion
glazing and canopy
What are two (artificial) ways of shading?
flow tends to occur at lower velocities, below a threshold at which it becomes turbulent
unsteady vortices appear on many scales and interact with each other
swirling a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid flows past an obstacle
reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section (or choke) of a pipe
describes that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases; the faster air moves, the lower its pressure.
converts kinetic and potential energy of water into mechanical work.
What types of water are there?
high standard filtration
safe to drink
surplus water from rain and melted snow, it infiltrates into the soil or is held on the surface and evaporates, or runs off asphalt or hardscape and may end up in a nearby body of water.
The water from washers, sinks, and baths, easy to use onsite for landscape, and toilet flushing
Water that contains feces and urine; also called "sewage"
body of saturated or permeable rock- typically beneath the ground, through which water can easily move
A treated or untreated wastewater discharge from an industrial facility.
water enters recycling process.
Primary- physical process removes some organic matter and suspended solids
Secondary- biological process removes residual
Tertiary- physical, biological and/or chemical process to further remove suspended and solids dissolved material.
What are the three processes of wastewater treatment?
Envelope is known as _________.
what are the 4 strategies for thermal envelop design?
Minimize heat loss by transmission
heat loss through ceilings, walls, floors, and doors
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