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Which of the following statements is true about reproduction?
Sexual reproduction creates genetic variation among organisms.
A company seeks to develop a herbicide that kills plants by directly interfering (at the cellular level) with plants' ability to maintain TURGOR pressure. A herbicide could accomplish this by disrupting the membrane of ____.
What is the number of electrons in Al?
In the vaccine experiment, doctors wanted to test effectiveness of a vaccine. They had one group of babies who received high dose of vaccine, second group who received low dose of vaccine, and finally, third group which received placebo vaccine. What was the purpose of placebo group?
To compare placebo (non-vaccinated) babies with the babies that are vaccinated.
Lab results show that a patient is suffering from an intracellular disorder directly interfering with several cellular functions. Affected cells exhibit LOW LEVELS of LIPIDS. These laboratory results can best be explained if which cellular organelle is not functioning properly?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Match terms with descriptions
independent variable-what we are manipulating
dependent variable -what we are measuring to see effect of manipulation
control group- baseline
experimental group- group being manipulated
confounding variable- variable that can mask effects of independent variable
What is the number of protons in Fe?
You want to test effects of water temperature on bitterness of coffee. You Brew coffee with water that was at 165F, 185F, and 210F. For each temperature you also have 3 trials where coffee was cooked for 2, 5, and 7 minutes.
Your experiment has confounding variable.
Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?
Using a pH meter, you find the pH of an unknown solution to be 12.0. How would you describe this solution?
What is the number of neutrons in most common isotope of Mg?
Which one of these is NOT necessary characteristic of life?
Ability to make own nutrients
Which of the following structures is found both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Match particle name with its properties
electron matches negative charge; negligible weight
proton matches positive charge; weight 1
neutron matches no charge (neutral); weight 1
Which one of these is correct regarding lipids? (choose ALL that apply)
F - Saturated fats are good for you D - Steroids are made of glycerine and 4 fatty acids A - Lipids are made of monomers
In the scenario above with Jay and Monique, what is the experiment?
Jay takes a B12 supplement for a few days.
Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited neurological disorder in which a defective enzyme prohibits the DIGESTION (hydrolysis) of phospholipids called gangliosides. Tay-Sachs disease is caused by malfunctioning _____.
Which one of these is true about nucleic acids? (choose ALL that apply)
B - nucleotides are made of 3 parts: nitrogenous base + sugar + and phosphate group A - they are made of monomers called nucleotides C - nucleotides are connected to each other in a chain by connecting phosphate of one to sugar of the next nucleotide
What is the number of valence electrons in F?
You want to test effects of water temperature on bitterness of coffee. You Brew coffee with water that was at 165F, 185F, and 210F. For each temperature you also have 3 trials where coffee was cooked for 2, 5, and 7 minutes. Your independent variable is:
temperature of brewing
The ______ is the basic unit of life.
Match name of the chemical bond and description.
Polar covalent bond - formed between 2 or more atoms with large difference in electronegativity and is marked by unequal sharing of the electrons where part of the newly formed molecule has section with partly negative charge and section with partly positive charge
Nonpolar covalent bond - formed between 2 or more atoms with small difference in electronegativity and is marked by equal sharing of the electrons
Ionic bond - formed between 2 or more atoms with extremely large difference in electronegativity resulting in one atom taking completely electrons from the other electron (bond is between 2 charged particles)
Hydrogen bond - weak bond between molecules with polar covalent bonds where partially negatively charged area of one molecule is attracted by partially positively charged area of another molecule
Nitrogen has electronegativity 3. What type of bond might nitrogen form with hydrogen whose electronegativity is 2.2.
covalent polar bond
You want to test effects of water temperature on bitterness of coffee. You Brew coffee with water that was at 165F, 185F, and 210F. For each temperature you also have 3 trials where coffee was cooked for 2, 5, and 7 minutes. Your dependent variable is
How are eukaryotes different from prokaryotes?
Prokaryotic cells never have organelles
Match properties of water to occurrences in nature
cohesion and adhesion matches movement of water from roots to the leafs
cohesion and surface tension matches pain when you belly flop into pool
cohesion matches shape of the dew droplets
adhesion matches dew drop "sitting" on the leaf without rolling off
Which cell shape has the SMALLEST ratio of surface area to volume?
A- the circle
Which of the following is a testable hypothesis?
Hair that is shaved grows back coarser and darker.
The compartmentalization of areas within eukaryotic cells _____.
allows them to perform several biochemical functions simultaneously
Which one of these statements are true about carbohydrates? choose ALL that apply
A- Monosaccharides are monomers of disaccharides and polysaccharides C - Disaccharides are made from 2 monosaccharides connected to each other through dehydration synthesis D - Polysaccharides can be broken down to monosaccharides via hydrolysis
How many of these features does a typical bacterial cell have?
DNA, cell wall, nucleus, ribosomes, cell membrane, mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus
A study was done to compare the lung capacity of coal miners to the lung capacity of farm workers. The researcher studied 200 workers of each job type. Other factors that are known to affect lung capacity are smoking habits and exercise habits. The smoking habits of the two worker types are similar, but the coal miners generally exercise less. At the end of the study the researcher found that farm workers had a larger lung capacity than coal miners and concluded that this is because of the type of job they do. Unfortunately, there is a confounding variable here, which means another conclusion is possible. What is the confound?
Match structure/organelle with its function.
Plasma (cell) membrane - separates cell from external environment
Nucleus - houses DNA
Mitochondria-ATP (energy) production Perixosomes - breaks down fatty acids and amino acids; detoxifies toxins
cell wall - found in plant and prokaryotic cells; protection and structural support
Which one of these is true about amino acids? (choose ALL that apply)
D - They are monomers of polypeptides C - Amino acids differ from each other based on R-group structure B - They all have following parts: central C-atom + H atom + amino group + carboxyl group + R group A - there are only 20 different Amino acids in nature
How many of these ORGANELLES occur in your liver cells?
mitochondria, ribosomes, nucleus, lysosomes, chloroplasts, central vacuole, ER, Golgi apparatus, cell membrane
"Inheritance" is a topic talked about in science regarding the ways genes are passed on from one generation to the next. The ideas of inheritance (such as "independent assortment" and "dominance") were once controversial but have been studied extensively and are now supported by the vast majority of data and observations. In science, the collection of ideas explaining "inheritance" in the natural world would be considered:
Match structure/organelle with description.
Lysosomes - digestion of macromolecules and broken organelles
Chloroplasts - photosynthesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum - protein synthesis
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - lipid synthesis
Golgi apparatus - modifies; tags; packs proteins and lipids
Which one of these is NOT true about proteins
protein and polypeptide are interchangeable terms
patient exhibits a diverse range of symptoms. Lab tests reveal that multiple metabolic processes are occurring at sub-normal levels due to the lack of nutrients and molecular building blocks. Tests also reveal that cells are not secreting materials normally and have an improper exchange of ions with environment. These laboratory results can best be explained if which cellular organelle is not functioning properly?
plasma (cell) membrane
Jay notices that he's feeling tired a lot lately. Monique suggests that he may be low on vitamin B12 and that he should take a supplement. After a few days of taking the supplement, Jay feels a lot more energetic. What is the hypothesis in this scenario?
Jay is tired because he is low on vitamin B12.
A student sets up an experiment to see if fertilizer affects the growth of seeds. He sets up 10 seed pots. Five of the seed pots will be planted with strawberries and receive a small amount of fertilizer. The other five seed pots will be planted with green beans and not receive fertilizer. All 10 seed pots will receive the same amount of water, sunlight, and number of seeds. He charts the growth every two days for a month.
There is a problem here...what's the confound?
type of seeds
Which reaction is likely coupled with hydrolysis of ATP?
Only A and C are correct
During glycolysis molecules of glucose are
broken down by enzymes to form two molecules of pyruvate
Which transport mechanism can bring whole cells into a cell?
If concentration of solute in cell is 76% and outside is 25% and solute cannot move through the membrane, water will _____
move into of the cell because cell is in hypertonic environment
In the reaction at the end of the electron transport chain, molecule X is being _ and molecule Y is being __.
Glycolysis occurs in the
In what important way does receptor-mediated endocytosis differ from phagocytosis?
It brings in only a specifically targeted substance.
Match terms with their definitions
fagocytosis matches "cell eating' - transport of large particles into the cells
pinocytosis matches "cell drinking' - transport of liquids into the cell
receptor-mediated endocytosis matches form of transport where structure/molecule/cell being transported first needs to bind to specific membrane receptor to initiate endocytosis
Exocytosis matches process of waste removal or excretion of proteins and hormones
Why does the sodium-potassium pump require energy? Refer to the image below.
It moves solutes against their concentration gradients.
The electrons removed during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are carried to the electron transport chain by
NADH and FADH2.
What happens to the membrane of a vesicle after exocytosis?
It fuses with and becomes part of the plasma membrane.
Which one of these is NOT correct regarding Calving cycle?
During phase 3, rubisco is recycled
You look at the electromagnetic spectrum chart and realize that the frequency of AM radio waves is 106 Hz and frequency of UV rays is 1016 Hz. Which one of following statements is TRUE regarding AM radio waves and UV rays?
AM radio waves have higher wavelength than UV rays
On a class field trip, students swabbed, dug, and dipped samples of life from numerous places around campus. Back in the lab, one of the organisms found was unknown to the professor, or any reference books available, and could not be identified. It came from the edge of a marsh, and the sample smelled of hydrogen sulfide (rotten eggs). The single cells were found to survive only in a container that had sulfate in it, but also had the oxygen removed by burning a candle (so instead of O2, S is the acceptor of electrons). This is likely an organism that uses ________ for cellular respiration.
Why are leaves green?
Plant pigments absorb almost every wavelength except for green.
Which one of these statements is NOT true about photosynthesis?
Goal of photosynthesis is to produce O2
Oxidation and reduction reactions are typically linked within a cell. They are part of most matter and energy transformations necessary for vital life functions. Oxidation-reduction reactions
transfer electrons from one molecule to another.
The Krebs cycle produces
ATP, NADH, FADH2, and CO2.
How do the light reactions of photosynthesis produce ATP? (Select the one best answer.)
Potential energy stored in a hydrogen ion gradient is used to synthesize ATP.
During photosynthesis light reactions, water is needed to ______.
To replace electrons knocked out of photosystem II by light photon
The region of an enzyme that catalyzes reactions is called a(n)
Compared to the air a person exhales, the air that they inhale has
higher concentration of O2 and a lower concentration of CO2.
How does a plant cell use the ATP that it produces in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
to fuel the carbon reactions
Match Images above to type of photosynthesis.
A matches C4
B matches C3
C matches CAM
does not require energy.
Energy is stored long-term in the bonds of ____ and used short-term to perform work from a(n) ____ molecule.
glucose : ATP
The survival of most organisms is immediately threatened if they live at the site of a catastrophic forest fire, volcanic eruption, or dust storm. These events, however, can launch soot, ash, or dust into different levels of the atmosphere, measurably lowering available sunlight at locations thousands of miles from the site. The ________ are most quickly and strongly impacted at these distances, with lack of growth and reproduction.
autotrophs, such as crops and woodlands
Which one of these is not part of Cell respiration
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable (biological) membrane is
The glucose that enters the glycolysis pathway is split into two molecules of ______.
The organelle that carries out photosynthesis in plants is the
Which step of cell respiration DOES NOT produce ATP
If a cell has a lower concentration of solute than its environment, the cell
is hypotonic to the environment.
What do the electrons added to NAD+ do?
They go to electron transport chain for ATP production.
When NADP+ _____ in the light cycle it is ______, forming NADPH.
accepts electrons; reduced
Why does fermentation yield so much less ATP?
it only goes through glycolysis
Your liver produces 90% of the cholesterol found in your body. When cholesterol levels get too high, the first enzyme in the pathway of cholesterol synthesis is inhibited by cholesterol itself. This is an example of
Which one of these does NOT do cell respiration (any kind including fermentation)?
all of these have to do cell respiration
Plants require a lot of water for hydration, metabolism, homeostasis, and photosynthesis. How is water used in photosynthesis?
as an electron donor in the photosystems
The breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water is an
exergonic reaction in cellular respiration.
Up to 25% of a cell's ATP is used to run sodium-potassium pumps. Without the resulting sodium and potassium gradients, neurons and muscles cannot fire properly. The sodium-potassium pump requires energy and moves these ions against their concentration gradients. As such, sodium-potassium pump represents
- active transport.
In a typical plant leaf, the _______ are where photosynthesis takes place.
Changes in DNA sequence are called _______.
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromatids in G2 phase of Interphase.
Creates covalent bond between adjacent DNA segments (glues Dna pieces together)
Where does Translation occurs in eukaryotic cell?
Normal tumor suppressor gene causes cancers.
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromosomes in Prophase.
During G1 phase of interphase
B - growth of the cell and replication of organelles occurs.
What happens during Initiation stage of Transcription?
RNA Polymerize binds to promotor
Which one of these is NOT part of Interphase?
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromatids in Prophase.
During Metaphase ______
D - chromosomes align in the middle of the cell.
Which one of these is NOT Stop codon?
If "G" makes up 11% of RNA sample, what percentage is "A"?
D - Can't tell
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromosomes in metaphase.
During Anaphase _______
C - sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite sides of cell.
What is the sequence of START codon?
If "A" makes up 13% of RNA sample, what percentage is "T"?
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromatids in metaphase.
During M checkpoint in cell cycle cell is checking: _______
do kinetochores attach to spindle? Are chromosomes aligned down equator?
During Prometaphase ______
A - chromosomes attach to mitotic spindle fibers.
If one DNA strands is 5'-ACTACCG-3', then other strand will be
B - 3'-TGATGGC-5'
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromosomes at the end of anaphase.
If DNA template strand is 5'-CCGTAGTT-3', what would be mRNA transcribed from it?
During Telophase ______
C - two new nuclear envelopes are formed around two sets of chromosomes.
Why are Okazaki fragments necessary?
A - because DNA strand can only grow from 3' end
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromatids at the end of anaphase.
If following is mature mRNA being translated, how many amino acids will you see in this polypeptide? 5'-UACCAUGGGAGGCUGACCGAAGUUU-3'
A - unwinds DNA's double helix
Which one of these is NOT a function of mitosis
D - Sexual production
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromosomes in each newly cell at the end of telophase and cytokinesis.
DNA is replicated during
DNA Polymerase _________
C - binds nucleotides to form new strands
Which one of these is not present in DNA molecule?
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromatids in each newly cell at the end of telophase and cytokinesis.
Sister chromatids (identical copies of the chromosome) separate from each other during _____.
B - adds short RNA primer to DNA templet
Which one of these is not correct statement regarding nucleotides
B - Phosphate group is linked to 3'-Carbon of deoxyribose
In Prokaryotic cells such as bacteria transcription occurs in ____.
Because newly made DNA molecule contains one "parental" strand, and second strand is newly synthesized, we say that DNA replication is ______.
B - semi-conservative
If cell has total 8 chromosomes in G1 phase of Interphase, then it has ____ chromatids in this phase.
In Eukaryotic cells transcription occurs in ____.
Which one of these is not true?
DNA has U, and RNA has T
In Prophase I
A - Homologous chromosomes pair up and crossing over occurs
If mom is heterozygous A blood type and dad is AB blood type, what is the chance of child being homozygous A blood type?
Meiosis II produces total of
D - 4 haploid cells
If one Parent is Ff and other is FF, what is the chance that offspring will be ff?
In telophase and cytokinesis I
C - end product are 2 haploid cells with chromosomes that are still made of 2 sister chromatids
If mom is AB blood type and dad is AB blood type, what is the chance of child being O blood type?
Chromosomes coming out of Meiosis I ______.
B - are made of 2 chromatids
If mother is healthy non-carrier and dad is healthy carrier, what is the chance of a child being healthy non-carrier? (remember, this is autosomal recessive trait)
In Anaphase I
B - Homologous chromosomes separate and move towards opposite ends of cell
If mom is healthy carrier, and dad is healthy, what is a chance of male child having hemophilia? (this is X-linked recessive trait)
Chromosomes coming out of Meiosis II ______.
C - are made of 1 chromatid
If family has 3 boys and 2 girls, what is the chance of family having another boy?
in Anaphase II
B - sister chromatids separate from each other and travel to opposite sides of the cell
If mom is healthy carrier, and dad is healthy, what is a chance of female child having hemophilia? (this is X-linked recessive trait)
D - process in which homologous pairs exchange genetic material; occurs in Prophase 1
What is the chance of parents with genotypes AaBBccDd and AaBBccDd having a child having following genotype: AaBBccDd (write answer as fraction; to make it easier, treat 4/4 as 1)
If cell with 2n = 6 goes through meiosis, in Prophase 1, the number of homologous chromosome pairs is _____, the number of chromosomes is ______, and the number of chromatids is ______.
Color of rose flowers is inherited through incomplete dominance. If red color is dominant and white is recessive, what is a genotype of pink flowers?
C - the fact that each pair of homologous chromosomes independently and randomly orients itself during
What is the chance of parents with genotypes AaBBccDd and AaBBccDd having a child having following genotype: AaBBCCDd (write answer as fraction; to make it easier, treat 4/4 as 1)
If cell with 2n = 6 goes through meiosis, in Metaphase 1, the number of homologous chromosome pairs is _____, the number of chromosomes is ______, and the number of chromatids is ______.
3, 6, 12
If mother has A blood type (she is heterozygous) and father has 0 blood type, what is the chance of child having 0 blood type?
B - 1 set of chromosomes
E - heterozygous has phenotype which is intermediate between dominant and recessive (trait is fully expressed only in homozygous)
If cell with 2n = 6 goes through meiosis, in Anaphase I, the number of homologous chromosome pairs is _____, the number of chromosomes is ______, and the number of chromatids is ______.
B - 0, 6, 12
Fragile X-syndrome is X-linked dominant trait. If mother is heterozygous and dad is healthy, what is the chance of son getting the disorder?
C - 50%
D - different versions of same gene
B - in heterozygous BOTH alleles are expressed
If cell with 2n = 6 goes through meiosis, in Prophase II, the number of homologous chromosome pairs is _____, the number of chromosomes is ______, and the number of chromatids is ______.
C - 0, 3, 6
Fragile X-syndrome is X-linked dominant trait. If mother is heterozygous and dad is healthy, what is the chance of daughter getting the disorder?
C - 50%
Non-disjunction can occur during ______ and ______. (choose all that apply)
Anaphase I Anaphase II
A - genes on same chromosomes; genes that tend to be inherited together unless crossing over separates them
If mom is healthy, and dad has hemophilia, what is a chance of female child having hemophilia? (this is X-linked recessive trait)
If cell with 2n = 6 goes through meiosis, in Metaphase II, the number of homologous chromosome pairs is _____, the number of chromosomes is ______, and the number of chromatids is ______.
C - 0, 3, 6
Trisomy is disorder caused by presence of _______ copies of the same chromosome.
D - traits determined by multiple genes
If mom is healthy, and dad has hemophilia, what is a chance of male child having hemophilia? (this is X-linked recessive trait)
If cell with 2n = 6 goes through meiosis, in Anaphase II, the number of homologous chromosome pairs is _____, the number of chromosomes is ______, and the number of chromatids is ______.
E - 0, 6, 6
B - 2 alleles are same
C - when single gene affects multiple traits
Meiosis I produces
B - 2 haploid cells
A - homozygous dominant or recessive (when breeding always produces offspring of same phenotype as parent)
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