Final chpt. 12 learning and memory

Anterograde amnesia
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what was the result of rats with damage to the striatum?could remember which arms they had visited, but couldn't learn to enter lighted armswhat was the result of rats with damage to both hippocampicould learn the simple conditioning task of going to any lighted arm for food -but if every arm was baited with food, the rats could not remember which arms they had visited and repeatedly returned to arms where the food had already been eatenwhich rats were able to learn simple conditioning task of going to any lighted arm for food?rats with damage to both hippocampiwhich rats could remember which arms they had visited, but couldn't learn to enter lighted arms?rats with damage to the striatumin what part of memory does the amygdala play a significant role?in nondeclarative emotional learningworking memoryprovides a temporary "register" for information while it is being usedwhat is an example of working memory?-holds a phone number you just looked up or that you recall from memory, while you dial the number -hold info retrieved from LTM to use for problem solvingwhere is the central executive for working memory?the prefrontal areaLong-term potentiation (LTP)an increase in synaptic strength following repeated high-frequency stimulationLong-term depression (LTD)a decrease in the strength of a synapse that occurs when an axon of a neuron is active while the postsynaptic neuron is not depolarizedwhat is meant by " those that fire together, wire together"?when two neurons are repeatedly activated together, their synaptic connection will become strongerwhat is the neurotransmitter involved in LTP in most locations?glutamatewhat are the two types of glutamate receptors?1. the AMPA receptor 2. the NMDA receptorsubstantial loss of memory and other cognitive abilities in the elderlydemntiawhat is the most common cause of dementia?alzheimer's diseasealzheimer's diseasea disorder characterized by progressive brain deterioration and impaired memory and other mental abilities.what is the earliest and most severe symptom of alzheimers disease?impaired declarative memorywhat are two notable characteristics of alzheimer's disease?-plaques -neurofibrillary tanglesplaquesclumps of amyloid, a type of protein, that cluster among axon terminals and interfere with neural transmissionneurofibrillary tanglesabnormal accumulations of the protein tauwhat are physiological differences of an Alzheimer's brain?-gyri are smaller -sulci are wider than normalaccording to diseased brains, where are many of the lesions located?temporal lobeexcitotoxicitywhen the excess glutamate overstimulates NMDA recptors and kills neuronsmemantinethe first alzheimers drug approved for the use in patients with moderate and severe symptomsKorsakoff's syndromebrain deterioration which is almost always caused by chronic alcoholismwhat is the deterioration result from ?deficiency in vitamin thiamine (B1)what is the most pronounced symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome?anterograde amnesiawhat form of memory is impaired in Korsakoff's syndrome?declarative memorywhat areas of the brain are reduced in size in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome?the mammillary bodies and the dorsomedial thalamusconfabulationthey fabricate stories and facts to make up for those missing from their memorieswhat is the dependent factor of confabulation?abnormal activity in the frontal lobes, and confabulating patients usually have lesions there