5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Approximately how many people live in the US?
- Number of People Known to be Living in Alabama with HIV
- Approximately how many people does smoking kill in the US every year?
- a Probability of disease in a patient with a positive test result PV+=true positive/(true positive + false positive) p. 39
- b 450,000
- c ...300,000,000
- d the proportion of persons in a defined population at a given point in time having the condition in question
- e 11,700. Of these 11,700 known to have HIV, ~4,500 have AIDS. (This number with AIDS will probably not be asked since the term AIDS is somewhat subjective. The viral load limit that a person must have to be considered suffering from AIDS has been lowered in recent years.)
5 Multiple choice questions
- Phase 1: first stage of testing in humans (about 20-100 pple); small group of healthy volunteers; test for safety, tolerability, pharmokinetics, and pharmacodynamics
Phase 2: larger groups (about 20-300 ppl), assess how well the drug works, dosing requirments, efficacy
Phase 3: large groups (300-3,000 ppl), test to see how effective the drug is compared to other drugs
Phase 4: safety survellience, ongoing technical support
- "degree to which the results of an observation hold true in other settings" "generalizability" "Assuming that the results of a study are true, do they apply to my patients as well?" p. 10
- The absolute difference in the rate of events between the control and the intervention group. ( same as ARR)
- Def: Early detection of existing disease to reduce severity and complications
Ex. Screening for cancer
5 True/False questions
Ecology of Medicine → (Dr. Wheat) author? journal?....i think...Kerr White New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 2, 1961 "Ecology of Medical Care"
Case Fatality Rate → Proportion of people with a disease who have a positive test for the disease = true positives/(true positives + false negatives) p. 39
Relative Risk Reduction → How much of the risk is reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group. RRR=ARR/(rate of control group)
Number of People Living in the US with HIV. → 500,000-1,000,000
Confounders → Patient characteristics that may affect the results a study it is trying to measure. They can decrease the validity of a study.