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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Prevalence
  2. Approximately how many people live in the US?
  3. Number of People Known to be Living in Alabama with HIV
  4. Approximately how many people does smoking kill in the US every year?
  5. PPV
  1. a Probability of disease in a patient with a positive test result PV+=true positive/(true positive + false positive) p. 39
  2. b 450,000
  3. c ...300,000,000
  4. d the proportion of persons in a defined population at a given point in time having the condition in question
  5. e 11,700. Of these 11,700 known to have HIV, ~4,500 have AIDS. (This number with AIDS will probably not be asked since the term AIDS is somewhat subjective. The viral load limit that a person must have to be considered suffering from AIDS has been lowered in recent years.)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. ...4,700,000
  2. Phase 1: first stage of testing in humans (about 20-100 pple); small group of healthy volunteers; test for safety, tolerability, pharmokinetics, and pharmacodynamics
    Phase 2: larger groups (about 20-300 ppl), assess how well the drug works, dosing requirments, efficacy
    Phase 3: large groups (300-3,000 ppl), test to see how effective the drug is compared to other drugs
    Phase 4: safety survellience, ongoing technical support
  3. "degree to which the results of an observation hold true in other settings" "generalizability" "Assuming that the results of a study are true, do they apply to my patients as well?" p. 10
  4. The absolute difference in the rate of events between the control and the intervention group. ( same as ARR)
  5. Def: Early detection of existing disease to reduce severity and complications
    Ex. Screening for cancer

5 True/False questions

  1. Ecology of Medicine(Dr. Wheat) author? journal?....i think...Kerr White New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 2, 1961 "Ecology of Medical Care"


  2. Case Fatality RateProportion of people with a disease who have a positive test for the disease = true positives/(true positives + false negatives) p. 39


  3. Relative Risk ReductionHow much of the risk is reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group. RRR=ARR/(rate of control group)


  4. Number of People Living in the US with HIV.500,000-1,000,000


  5. ConfoundersPatient characteristics that may affect the results a study it is trying to measure. They can decrease the validity of a study.