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Psychology 102 Study Guide 3
Terms in this set (47)
•Memory - but different from episodic memories
-In brain areas
-Episodic memories may transition to knowledge
•Knowledge supports processing and memory
•People are pretty good at knowing what they know
•But people make errors, in part because they use heuristics for truth
Feeling of Knowing
People who cannot retrieve answers to general knowledge questions can predict whether or not they will recognize them.
Answer 150 general knowledge questions, and predict
how likely one is to recognize it on 6 AFC test
Problem: Unskilled but unaware
--> ppl who were less knowledgable thought were more
--> rated how knowledgable they were on topics such as personal finance and US Geography
Last Class: Perceived knowledge predicts overclaiming
•Manipulate beliefs about one's geography knowledge à feeling like one knows more increases claims of recognizing "Monroe, Montana"
•Self-reported Financial knowledge à claim to recognize terms like "pre-rated stocks"
We know people sometimes rely on emotion over knowledge
And sometimes knowledge appears "suspended"
--trust things in a more contrasted fault
--more likely to trust a rhyme
--truthiness: more likely to think things are true when are accompanied with pictures
Easy processing as a marker of truth
•learned heuristic, since truths are encountered on average more frequently than falsehoods (Unkelbach)
-Reaction time is correlated with confidence
-Repetition increases truth ratings
awareness of / understanding your own thought processes
Does expertise protect against errors in knowledge?
Subjects: History & Biology PhD students
Error Detection Phase
What is the biological term for breathing, in which humans exchange carbon monoxide for oxygen?
--results: experts are less likely to fall for moses illusion in their field but still have high occurrence of illusion
Two facts about language
1) Language can be "messy" and ambiguous
ex: Garden Path Sentences
While Anna dressed the baby played in the crib.
2)Language is "good enough"
"... the meaning people obtain for a sentence is often not a reflection of its true content"
ex: Next Wednesday's meeting has been moved forward two days. What day is the meeting now that it has been rescheduled?
**One's physical movement is a cue to interpret the ambiguous question
Language ambiguity can occur at many levels
•Across people - sex, accents, etc.
-I shot the sheriff but I didn't shoot the deputy
-I shot the sheriff but I didn't shoot him dead you see
When sounds are said together (co-articulated) rather than in isolation, they influence each other.
ex: trumpet vs. butter
2) Visual input
ex: McGurk effect: hear sounds differently based on how the mouth is moving
3) Categorical perception
perceived sound changes from one category to another at a certain point along a continuum, instead of changing gradually
ex: pa vs ba
**graph looks like infinity sign without ends
problems and cues of language
- Semantic ambiguities
- Natural variability in speech/Disfluencies
- Difficult to segment
Sounds affected by other sounds
Pauses in speech stream do not always correspond to word boundaries
- semantic context
- visual cues (McGurk Effect)
- cues from other sounds
Infants lose the ability to discriminate nonnative contrasts (Werker & Tees)
SUBJECTS REACHING CRITERION ON THOMPSON CONTRASTS
--english speaking infants do better than English speaking adults at recognizing words in Thompson language
--Older english speaking infants do worse on Salish/Hindi tests than younger ones (do better on hindi than salish), youngest infants (6-8) are closer to Hindi and/or Salish infants
--does speaking different languages have consequences for cognition?
Linguistic Relativity and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Language determines thought
Weaker view of hypothesis: (more accepted)
some language might direct your attention to some parts of the experience over others
"Because of differences in what is differentiated across languages, speakers of different languages may be biased to attend to and encode different aspects of their experience while speaking"
The Dani experiment (of Papau New Guinea)
Population could process and understand a concept that don't have words for
Two color terms: mili, mola
--showed Dani a color chip and had pick out of an array even though don't have words for light and dark
--> because they could do the task led to weaker view of hypothesis
Boroditsky - Mandarin and English speakers think about time differently
•Time is abstract à a concrete metaphor is useful
•In English, primarily use the front/back metaphor
•Mandarin speakers also use qia´n (''front'') and back'') to talk about time
•BUT they also use vertical metaphors: sha`ng (''up'') and xia` (''down'')
Mandarin speakers really slowed down if have to do to the right
--even though direction are in English, have impacts of native language
2 primes + 1 judgment à 64 trials
1 prime: horizontal (black worm in front of white worm)
2 prime: vertical (black ball above white ball)
English speakers react much earlier when have horizontal prime and later with vertical prime
Mandarin speakers react much earlier with vertical prime and later with horizontal
Turkish and Spanish speakers
makes distinguish between first hand and non firsthand source and has implications for memory
significantly better at recognizing firsthand and remembered firsthand comments a lot more than secondhand, Turkish language puts more weight on firsthand knowledge
--> Turkish bilingual/Turkish recognize firsthand a lot more than secondhand while English recognize firsthand and secondhand similarly (a little more for firsthand)
--> Turkish bilingual/Turkish remember the source for firsthand a lot more than secondhand while English recognize firsthand and secondhand similarly (a little more for firsthand)
Tversky & Kahneman
Look at people's behavior - they don't follow the rules of economics that assume ppl calculate expected values and make rational decisions.
--> Amos Tversky died so did not get Nobel Prize
1968, Hebrew University: Observations of fighter-pilot trainers
"If you praise a trainee after a good flight, the next one is worse!"
Two major classes of behaviors unpredicted by Economists
1) Reliance on Heuristics (shortcuts)
2) Loss Aversion (Framing Effects; Prospect Theory)
Heuristic #1 - Availability
•Process by which "people assess the frequency of a class or the probability of an event by the ease with which instances or occurrences can be brought to mind"
ex: •Which is a more likely cause of death in the United States - being killed by falling airplane parts or by a shark?
•For each pair, which cause of death is more common in the United States?
-Diabetes or Homicide
-Tornadoes or Lightening
-Car Accidents or Stomach Cancer
ex: vivid statements and availability
•Hypothetical Scenario - drunk driver runs stop sign and crashes garbage truck
•Read statements about why defendant guilty or innocent :
On the way out the door, he staggered against a serving table, knocking a bowl to the floor.
On the way out the door, he staggered against a serving table, knocking a bowl of guacamole dip to the floor and splattering guacamole on the white shag carpet
•Hypothetical Scenario - drunk driver runs stop sign and crashes garbage truck
•Read statements about why defendant guilty or innocent :
The owner of the garbage truck admitted under cross-examination that his garbage truck is difficult to see at night because it is gray in color.
The owner of the garbage truck admitted... The owner said his trucks are gray "because it hides the dirt" and he said "what do you want, should I paint them pink?".
•How drunk do you think the defendant was at the of the accident?
•What is your personal opinion about his innocence or guilt?
--more vivid statements easier to recall and more influential
Heuristic #2- Anchoring and Adjustment
"different starting points yield different estimates, which are biased toward the initial values."
Heuristic #3 - Representativeness
•"probabilities are evaluated by the degree to which A is representative of B, that is, by the degree to which A resembles B"
ex: Linda is a bank teller vs a feminist bank teller
ex: Think Sally goes to Duke instead of UNC with test scores when more ppl who fit her criteria go to UNC
Problem = Base Rate Neglect
•People fail to take all relevant information into account
•Ignore general rates of occurrence and focus on details of a particular situation
Are Heuristics good or bad?
simple rules in the mind's adaptive toolbox for making decisions with realistic mental resources"- building blocks- generalizable
Simplifying a problem can be a good thing
•"Which city has a larger population: San Diego or San Antonio?"
-Americans: 67% correct
-Germans: 100% correct
Fast and Frugal Heuristics
-Take the Best - most valid cue
-Take the Last - most recent cue
•Satisficing - stop looking for alternatives once the goal is met
When value something as more because you own it
--real estate pricing
Loss aversion and Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky)
•Decision frame: "decision maker's conception of the acts, outcomes, and contingencies associated with a particular choice"
Sure gains are preferred over gambles, but risks are preferred when it comes to losses
•Losses loom larger than gains
•Overweight very low probabilities, underweight everything else
Examples of loss aversion:
--more risky with money when possibility could lose none instead of sure loss
--also more risky with deciding no one will die of disease vs. sure death of 200 ppl despite odds
--not buying ticket when lost 20 dollars vs. buying another ticket when lost original 20 buck ticket
Three main points about decision making
•Loss aversion and endowment effects, predict (correctly) less symmetry in the world than does normative economic theory
•Framing changes the way decision makers treat the same problem
•Prospect Theory captures these ideas quantitatively
Points from prospect theory
1) Losses and Gains are not symmetrical in their impact (Loss Averision)
2) The value of $x depends on your starting point
$5 is not always $5
--> get more utility when do not have much than when have a lot
- Won the Nobel Prize in 2017 for
"for his contributions to behavioural economics."
--ex: getting a discount in Switzerland when prices are high versus the same discount in New York when prices are regular feels better
Imposing a surcharge is less acceptable than removing a discount:
-A shortage had developed for a car model and the dealer now prices it $200 higher (29% acceptability)
-A shortage had developed for a car model and the dealer, who had been giving $200 discounts, now eliminates the discount (58% acceptability)
Behavioral Econ Implications
•Investment: take gains too early and avoid taking losses
•Buying a car: Value higher price on trade-in more than cheaper price on car
•Organ Donation: better to have people opt out than to opt in
Wason 4-Card Task
If there is a vowel on one side,
it must have an even number on the other side
If a person is drinking beer,
Then that person must be over 21
Falsification principle: to test a rule, you must look for situations that falsify the rule
--> people did a lot better when was something that they knew (aka beer/postage) than when it was in an abstract form
Wason card task with Transit, Entering, Cholera Typhoid Hepatitis, and Hepatitus
You are an immigration officer at the International Airport in Manila, capital of the Philippines.
Among the documents you have to check is a sheet called Form H.
2. To protect
Correct answer: select entering and hepatitis
--difference bw two condition is second has inoculation and if entering must be inoculated against cholera to ensure that the passenger is protected against the disease
--in transit is fine but entering is a problem
--ppl get confused (same thing as other card game)
*****data shows that have confirmation bias and reliance on knowledge (both specific and general)
--ppl are not very good when abstract
--if had confirmation bias would pick card with all diseases, but doesn't matter what says on the other side of the card
**similar results found in Hong Kong and Michigan that rationale a lot more correct than no rationale
The Monty Hall Problem (reasoning task)
Three prize boxes: Pick one box from get go--> 1/3
Between other two boxes, Monty says one that doesn't have a good prize --> of two boxes chance is 2/3--> all of that probability goes to remaining box
--should switch because have chance of 1/3 to 2/3 good prize in the long run if Monty knows which has the bad prize
"The process of drawing conclusions"
Deduction: "reasoning from general premises, which are known or presumed to be known, to more specific, certain conclusions."
Does a conclusion logically follow from the premises?
Induction: "reasoning from specific cases to more general, but uncertain, conclusions."
Reason from observations / past experiences
•An obstacle between a present state and a goal
•Not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle
**problem solving isn't a unitary concept
--moving two pennies in two lines to get to circle of pennies
--9-Dot Problem: Connect the nine dots with four connected straight lines without lifting your pencil from the page as you draw.
•Sudden realization of a problem's solution
•Often requires restructuring the problem
•A preconceived notion about how to approach a problem
•Based on a person's past experiences with the problem (or similar problems)
•Water-jug problem: given mental set inhibited participants from using simpler solution
--w tacks, matches, and candle need to put candle upright on wall
--attach box to wall and then put candle on that as a shelf
Dunker's Radiation Problem
Problem: Surface Similarities Distract
--need to get tumor but radiation would need to pass through healthy tissue that would be destroyed along with the tumor but solution of using several rays at low intensity pointed directly at tumor would get tumor and healthy tissue would only be subjected to low rays
idea that get stuck on something, in memory experiments talked about interference, in problem solving is idea that get stuck on the wrong answer
1. On wrong way of representing the problem
2. On a wrong answer
3. On surface characteristics
Smith & Blankenship Procedure
•2 example rebuses
•15 rebuses with useful clues
•Last 5 rebuses with misleading clues
•0, 5, or 15 minutes
•Filled or unfilled
•Rebuses again, without clues
performance improves as time increases on these with the misleading clues
→ if you get stuck on something interfering wrong answer might go away
Graph looks like funnel on side with big part near vertical axis
--on x-axis have control, 5 mins, 10 mins
"Refers to superior performance for those subjects who return to the problem after a delay rather than working continuously on the problem... An unexpected insight into the solution may occur."
Smith & Blankenship, 1989
•Set-breaking / Forgetting Fixation
•Cues encountered during delay
The Dictator Problem
--have fortress surrounded by farms and villages, roads to din through countryside
--wanted to start at one road but had mines on roads so that only weight of one or a few men could pass over
--solutioon was that general divided army into ssmall grooups that started at diff roads so got there at same time
Link between Dunkers problem and Dictator Problem
•"The essence of analogical thinking is the transfer of knowledge from one situation to another by a process of mapping - finding a set of one-to-one correspondences (often incomplete) between aspects of one body of information and aspects of another"
Expertise (at particular problems)
•Takes years to develop
•More stored knowledge
•Allows greater chunking
•Different problem representations
•Less swayed by surface characteristics
Example: chess players
Chess board, whether came from real game or randomly generated, chess experts way outperformed novices on real chess boards BUT may have even done worse on randomly generated ones
--experts group problems based on physics themes (deeper) while novices group by surface characteristics
The overwhelming empirical base for cognitive research, including research on concepts, comes from samples of undergraduates attending major research universities, despite evidence that these samples may be especially unrepresentative of people in general
--> WEIRD populations have way more exaggerated Mueller Lyer illusion
Overall themes of course
1)Experience guides our interpretations of what we see
2) In response to a complex world, we are selective
--Moonwalking bear video
--East Asian paying more attention to background than Americans even though focal fish is paid more attn to by both
3)With experience we learn which things are like others...But these divisions are not set in stone
--development of schemas and scripts
5) More generally, we draw heavily on knowledge and past experiences across cognition..Although sometimes our knowledge and experiences get in the way...Thus such heuristics are imperfect but functional
6) Our biases in perception and attention affect what we remember
---Studied Series of Animated Underwater Scenes, context dependent memory
7)Memory is complex - encoding interacts with retrieval, and consolidation happens over time
8)People have some awareness into their cognitive processes....But are oftentimes overconfident or unaware
Kuuk Thaayorre language
spoken in Pormpuraaw does not use relative spatial terms such as left and right. Rather Kuuk Thaayorre speakers talk in terms of absolute cardinal directions (north, south, east, west, and so forth)... in Kuuk Thaayorre cardinal directions are used at all scales. This means one ends up saying things like "the cup is southeast of the plate"
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