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27 terms

API Qz3 Heart

AP I Qz 3 Heart
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Parietal pericardium
tough, fibroserous membrane may be absent from preserved eharts but remnants can still be seenadhering to the major blood vessels
visceral pericardium (epicardium)
adheres to the surface of the heart
-consists of only one layer of simple squamous cells
right and left ventricles
right ventricle-thin wall-b/c only generates enough force to move blood around the rest of the body
-also has different shape than left
right and left atrium
each atrium has a small ear-like extension called an auricle ("little ear") that slightly increases the volume of the atrium
aorta
the largest vessel just to the right of the right atrium
ligamentum arteriosum
under fat around the aorta
-supports the arch of the aorta against the pulmonary trunk
-this ligament is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus of the fetal heart
pulmonary trunk
-the largest vessel between the aorta and the left atrium as viewed from the anterior surface of the heart
-the vessel divides into the R and L pulmonary ateries
Pulmonary veins
-thin-walled veins embedded in fat
-lead to the left atrium
-located in the posterior surface of the heart at the point where only the right atrium and both ventricles can be seen
superior vena cava
attached to the upper part of the right atrium
-cut through this to get to the tricuspd valve
tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve
between the right atrium and right ventricle
(cut thru superior vena cava to get to this in dissection)
has 3 cusps
apex
down the right ventricle
endocardium
interior surface of the heart
-consists of a layer of simple squamous cells that are continous with the lining of blood vessels
pectinate muscle
-interior wall of the atrium has a comb-like appearance to increase the strength of this muscle
-****the muscle wall of the atrium is very thin b/c it pumps blood only into the ventricle
3 veins that empty into the chamber of the R atrium
-superior vena cava
-inferior vena cava
-large veins that return blood from the upper and lower regions of the body
-coronary sinus
coronary sinus
DEOXYGENATED blood from the coronary muscle is returned to the right atrium
tribeculae carneae
ridges of the endocardium of both ventricles that reinforce the walls of the chambers
-in the inner wall of the ventricles
chordae tendineae
the AV valves are attached to these chords
-hold the cusps within the ventricle
-anchored to papillary muscles
papillary muscles
muscular projections of the ventricular wall that chordae tendineae are anchored to
pulmonic semilunar valve
up through the right ventricle and into the pulmonary trunk
bicuspid (left atrioventricular or mitral) valve
-between the left atrium and left ventricle
aortic semilunar valve
marks the exit of the left ventricle into the aorta
right and left coronary arteries
in the walls of the aorta just above the aortic semilunar valve
-two openings are these arteries
-carry OXYGENATED blood to the heart muscle
relative levels of oxygen
colors used on models indicate this
-red indicates a high level of oxygen
-blue indicates a lower level of oxygen
myocardial cells
-heart muscle cells
-have striations similar to skeletal muscle when the tissue is relaxed
How myocardial/cardiac muscle cells differ from others
more branched with only one centrally located nucleus per cell
-cells are interconnected by intercalated discs
intercalated discs
connect cells in myocardial muscle cells
-support synchronized contractions of cardiac tissue
human acute myocardial infarction
heart attack
-erythrocytes, blood clots, and evidence of massive invasions of leukocytes that hopelessly attempt to clean up and repair tissue damage