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32 terms

Histology of Nervous Tissue

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Astrocytes
Form the supportive framework for the nervous tissue; contact and stimulate blood capillaries; convert blood glucose; secret proteins; regulate chemical composition of tissue fluid
Microglial Cells
Phagocytize and destroy microorganisms, foreign matter, and dead nervous tissue
Ependymal Cells
Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord; secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
Oligodendrocytes
Form the myelin in the brain and spinal cord
Schwann Cells
the PNS glial cell that forms myelin
Satellite Cells
the PNS glial cell that surrounds the dorsal root ganglion neurons
Afferent Neurons
carry signals toward the CNS from the body periphery; sensory neurons
CNS - Central Nervous System
the brain and spinal cord collectively
Efferent Neuron
a neuron that conducts impulses away form the CNS to muscles and glands; motor neurons
Ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
Interneuron
neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons; association neurons
Neuroglia
specialized supporting cells in the CNS
Neurotransmitters
a chemical released at the distal end of an axon that stimulates an adjacent cell; found in the synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal; initiates electrical current from one neuron to the next by diffusing across the synaptic cleft
Nerve
a cordlike organ of the PNS composed of multiple nerve fibers ensheathed in connective tissue
Nuclei
a bundle of nerve processes
PNS - Peripheral Nervous System
Ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
Synapse
junction or point of close contact between neurons
Axon
impulse generator and transmitter
Axon Terminal
secretes neurotransmitters
Axon Hillock
region of the cell body from which the axon generates
Dendrite
receptive region of a neuron
Myelin Sheath
insulates the nerve fibers
Neurofibril
may be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron
Neuronal Cell Body
site of the nucleus and most important metabolic area
Nissl Bodies
essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically
Multipolar Neuron
one axon and multiple dendrites; efferent neurons and interneurons are multipolar
Bipolar Neuron
one axon and one dendrite
Unipolar Neuron
one single process leading away from the soma; afferent neurons are unipolar
Endoneurium
surrounds each nerve fiber
Perineurium
binds groups of fibers together to form bundles
Epineurium
binds all of the fascicles together
Mixed Nerve
nerves carrying both sensory and motor fibers