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Foundations of Theo: Final Exam
Terms in this set (293)
Paul's conversion in Damascus is __ in nature
Three fold significance of Paul's Damascus experience
1) conversion to Christian
2) call to be a prophet
3) commission to be an apostle to the gentiles
Paul believes he is as fully an apostle....
as Peter and everyone else
Paul's claim to be an apostle is...
that Jesus appears to him and commissions him
Paul's post-conversion movement in Damascus
1) doesn't confer with other humans
2) does NOT go to Jerusalem
Paul's post-conversion movement in Jerusalem
1) 3 years later
2) Peter and James
3) 2 weeks
4) unknown by sight (they've only heard of Paul)
Paul's second post-conversion movement in Damascus
1) preaches in the synagogue
Paul's second post-conversion movement in Jerusalem
4) Acts will try to maximize Paul's relationship with Jerusalem/Church
Full list of Paul's post-conversion movements
Focus of Paul's early missionary preaching
death and resurrection of Jesus (not his life)
Early Christians like to proclaim... but had to ....
the resurrection but had to explain the crucifixion
Jews idea of a crucified Messiah
Greeks idea of a cruicified Messiah
Paul doesn't downplay the death and resurrection of Jesus but ...
puts it in the very center
Paul says Jesus died a ...
cursed man but died innocent
Paul argues Jesus died a vicarious death --> in our place....
assuming the curse that falls upon all of us and not on himself
The Resurrection is GOd's ...
vindication of Jesus
Resurrection --> changes events
return of Jesus
the second coming (not found in the NT)
"Parousia" second coming of Jesus
second coming of Jesus
For Paul, Christians live...
in between the Resurrection and the return of Jesus
Paul expected Jesus to return...
within his own lifetime or that of his converts; they thought Jesus would return soon
Apostolic council (48 ca):
Mission to the __ and the question of the ___
4 Jewish -Christian positions
-ultra conservative position
-arised over circumcision should be required for males or not
-circumcision and the enitre Torah
circumcision and some of the Torah
no circumcision and some of the Torah
-no circumcision and none of the Torah
__ was the first Christian radical
Paul's position was vindicated and triumphed at the apostolic counsel because...
circumcision was not required, Christianity was a lot more possible (tremendous evangelical reprecussions)
collection for Jerusalem is meant to symbolize...
unity of Jew and gentile in Christ
Later period is the beginnings of Christianity in __ and ___
Asia and Europe
All of Paul's preserved laters come from the __ __
letters of Paul are the ___ documents in the NT
When and where is Paul's death?
Rome in 60s AD
Is paul single or married? is this normal?
single--highly unusual for a Jewish man [celibate]
The ___ would support Paul's ministers financially
how was Paul financially supported?
-manual labor (tentmaker/leather worker)
-has his own workshop where he works from dawn until dusk
Paul's sufferings include:
-link between __ and ___
virtue and adversity
What does Paul say enables him
divine power that is shown and praise showed go to God, not Paul himself
Paul says we are more than __ through Christ --> we __ ___
Paul's religious experience:
-ecstatic speech: ___
gibbering in a language only God can understand
What is Paul's attitude about parousia
imminent; Return in his own lifetime or that of his converts
What is Paul's opinion on what single people should do?
What is Paul's opinion on what married people should do?
Paul think people should get married for...
-so you don't commit adultery--basically everyone was married always committing adultery
Paul says to stay single if .... ; get married if you can't
you can control your sexual desires
Paul believes a man own __ __ and women own ____
Paul's radical obligations for sex in marriage...
-wife owes husband sex but also husband owes wife sex
-wife also has authority over husband's body and husband has authority over wife's body; refusal defrauds the other
Paul thinks married couples can stop having sex if:...
-must be mutual
-must be temporary
-must be for religious purposes
What is the traditional belief for evidence of the holy spirit
What is Paul's new consideration for ethical behavior?
ethical behavior shows someone has the spirit. Look at the quality of a person's life--> letting the spirit lead a person
Most humans are hostile to God and ...
alienated from him
Human condition: ___ and ___
alienation and hostility
The traditional paradigm assumes that the one who makes the mess...
needs to clean it us (Judaism--> sacrifice)
this traditional paradigm only works if...
a person feels badly
For the Pauline there is a paradigm shift it regards to human action and repentance...
-God acts to make things right through ....
the means of Christ's death
what are the means of repentance for the Pauline?
faith (to appropriate benefits of Christ's death)
what is the model for the Pauline paradigm for believing and faith?
Abraham--trust God's promise
Belief in a God that gives life _ __ __
to the dead
Humans are justified in trusting God before...
circumcision and that faith has manifested in action
In Paul's eyes keeping the law has nothing to do with __ __
Torah was given by God --> it is __
Why does God give the law?
the law turns sin into transgression (you will get in trouble for doing something that is wrong)
What are the problems with the law?
the very act of forbidding something increases the desire to do it; incites and increases transgressions
There is no __ ___ for success in keeping the law
if you break the law = ____
if you don't break the law = ___ ___
basis in faith, not __ ___
Paul doesn't want anyone saying "..."
giving me what I've earned
Success ends in boasting -->
not how one is set in right relationship with God, it is by faith
The law is ___
Paul did not see the law as __ __ (moses--> christ) therefore should be imposed on ____
Christ frees us from the ___
For Paul __ and __ not liberty and law go hand in hand
liberty and love
If Paul makes Christ the end of the law, he has opened...
the floodgates to sin
Paul has 2 safeguards for the moral life:
-baptism: death to the power of Sin
-Holy Spirit: ethical life without law required
Paul's undisputed letters
What is Paul's earliest letter?
-moral exhortation : __/___ letter
-young church-->makes.... (pastoral method is to focus on...)
makes lots of mistakes
what they're doing right and encourage them to work on that
Galatians: arrival of __ ___
insist on the necessity of circumcision and keeping part of the law
Galatians " ___ grace"
Galatians: a response to the mess....
the missionaries have created
Galatians: Paul thinks circumcision shows...
entrusting salvation into actions not Christ
1 Corinthians: two occasions:
1) oral report
2) letter from corinth
1 Corinthians: problems
-sex, marriage, divorce
meat that was used in a sacrifice
1 Corinthians issue with Glossolalia
only okay to speak in tongues under the right circumstances
1 Corinthians; Glossolalia: places a premium instead on ___. __ believers and ___ non-believers
Corinthians; Glossolalia: love is preferable to ...
glossolalia and prophecy
2 Corinthians is a __ __ (portions of severe and Reconciliation letter)
2 Corinthians: rival group of __ ___
2 Corinthians: attack
-charlatan--someone whose word cannot be trusted
-collection for Jerusalem--scam
2 Corinthians: leaves ephesus-->
goes to Corinth to deal with these issues --> disaster "painful visit" they think they're so mighty
in 2 Corinthians Paul attacks his rivals calling them " ___"
In 2Corinthians paul __ himself and rebukes the corinthians for...
not coming to his defense
2 Corinthians: Troas --> Macedonia... what happens
-meets up with Titus and lets him know the Corinthians responded to his letter and it worked
-follows us on this success by writing the letter of Reconciliation; things are getting better, still some concerns
Philemon -- Christians are __/___
In Philemon, Paul has a Pagan slave named __ who have a falling out. The slave leaves the household and goes to Paul who is in ___. Paul ....
Letter of INtercession
carried by Onesimum back to PHilemon
What does Paul tell Philemon about Onesimus?
ONesimus is no longer useless and lives up to his name which means "useful"
What is Paul's basic request for Philemon in his letter of Intercession?
Philemon to gently receive Onessimus back as if he was Paul himself
What are Paul's other requests to Philemon in his letter of Intercession?
-send him back to Pual after receiving him warmly. Then he can be of service to Paul in prison on Philemon's behalf
Has Paul been to Rome by the time he writes Romans?
Where was Romans written?
in Corinth, Greece
What does Paul tell the church in Rome in Romans?
he has finished his labors in many places and he is ready to come to Rome but first must give the money he has been collecting to Jerusalem
What does Paul say his mission is in Romans?
to establish the church in new places so he won't spend long in Rome, he's going to Spain next
What is the purpose of Romans?
for Paul to introduce himself to Rome. He is known in Rome (controversial figure)
Romans is not ___, it is the most __ __ of Paul's gosel
Paul asks the Romas to endorse..
his Jerusalem collection through prayer
Who carries Paul's letter from Corinth to Rome?
Who is mentioned in Paul's letter to the Romans and who is she/what is the significance?
-apostle, servant same terminology with female Christians as himself)
Does Paul's visit to Rome go as planned?
no, he arrives in Rome as a prisoner (never goes to Spain)
Where does Paul write PHilippians?
-ephesus not sure where (50s) or Rome (60s)
What is Paul's most joyful letter?
Philippians, despite being written in prison
What are the themes of Philippians?
Philippians send Paul _ ___ to show him...
a gift... their loyalty and support
Philippians includes a ___ ___
What is the differences that arise with Paul's disputed letters?
-Parousia (delayed, not imminent)
-celibacy (marriage is now norm
-Faith and works salvation in the future is determied at parousia; works are understood as any kind of human activity only FAITH saves you; salvation is already a realtiy
-Church structure/offices (increase restrictions on who can do what; many restrictions on women)
Is Hebrews disputed on undisputed?
authorship of Hebrews?
anonymous; rhetorically skilled; sophisticated
What is the genre of Hebrews?
homily/sermon with a letter closing
What is the date of Hebrews?
What is the situation in Hebrews?
-spiritual fatigue (manifested in them not going to church)
-loss of confidence in the effectiveness of Christ's death
What is the theme of Hebrews?
superiority of Christ. Christ is superior to...
In Hebrews, Christ is declared to be a priest according to the order of ___
In Hebrews, Christ is mediator of... (argument of superiority of Christianity over Judaism)
Hebrews discusses the efficacy of ___ ___ ___
Christ's saving death
Catholic/ General Epistles are not directed to... but more to...
a specific church in a given location; directed more widespread/universal
Seven letters Catholic/General Epistles categories
Elaborate on APostle letters
1) 1,2 Peter (pseudonymous)
2) 1,2,3 JOhn (anonymous)
Elaborate on Relative letters
1) James (pseudonymous)
2) Jude (pseudonymous)
1,2,3 John letters
view that Jesus was not a flesh and blood human like us; he only appeared to be human "anti-christ"
Letter of James
Problem of favoritism and partiality
Problem of faith and works
-suffering (endure suffering; ethical behavior0
one of early Christina writers who wrote about domestic violence
-2 pseudepigraphical works
2 pseudpigraphical works in Jude
-1 testament of Moses (michael the archangel vs the devil of Moses' body)
-1 Enoch (parousia and final judgement)
What is the last book to be written in NT
What does 2 Peter use as a source
What are 2 key issues in 2 Peter?
-delay of the parousia
-interpretation of Paul --heretics love Paul (scriptures)
Who was Revelation written for?
people who are suffering unjustly
What does Revelation show?
war on Christians and their ultimate vindication
authorship of Revelation
traditionally: apostle John
modern: prophet John (a local church leader in Asia Minor)
Situation in Revelation
Persecution: imprisonment and death; "war"
Views of Suffering in revelation
prophetic view of suffering in Revelation
guilty are being punished
apocalyptic view of suffering in Revelation
innocent--righteous; God will exact vengeance
Major Characters in Revelation
-Great ***** whor e
Dragon in Revelation
Two beasts in Revelation
-sea monster -Leviathan - Rome
-Land monster-Behemoth- the "false prophet" = Rome's imperial cult (worship of Rome and Rome's emperor was divine
Great W hore in Revelation
Lamb in Revelation
Basic Scenario in Revlation
war was declared by Rome vs lamb, and the lamb wins. Satan is chained in a pit for 1000 years --> period of peace and rest. Satan is released and goes on final rampage but he was defeated and cast into a lake of fire where they're forever tormented
Dates/Periods of councils and church
1) council of Nicaea - 325
2) ante-nicene Church (30-325)
3) Post-Nicene Church (325-600)
3 stages of Demography of the 4 great seismic shifts of Ante-Nicene church
1) entirely Jewish
2) Jewish-Christian majority and a growing gentile minority
3) Largely gentile religion with a diminishing Jewish element
4 factors of Demography of the 4 Great seismic shifts of Ante-Nicene Church
1) Vast majority of Jews never accepted Jesus as the Messiah
2) Statistically it didn't take many gentiles to convert to change the demographic balance
3) Death of James the Lord's brother
4) Fall of Jerusalem ended supremacy of the church
The seismic shifts of the ante-nicene church shifted teh __ of ___
centers of Christianity
What is the geography of the first generation: eastern of [4 seismic shifts of ante-nicene church]
1) Jerusalem (falls)
2) antioch of Syria
Timeline of Geography shifts if ante-nicene church starting with the fall of Jerusalem
1) fall of Jerusalem
2) east: antioch
4) Europe: Rome
5) Egypt: Alexandria
6) North Africa: Carthage
Peter and Paul were active in __ and died there as ___
Peter was former leader of ___ ___
Paul was the leader of teh __ ___
Peter and Paul were symbols of the...
unity and universality of the Church
Pre 70 theology of teh ante-nicene church
Torah and circumcision
post 70 theology of teh ante-nicene church
external and internal issues
- external issue= relationship to Judaism
-believed only true apostle was Paul
denied creator GOd of genesis and Jesus' father were the same God (thought there were 2 different gods)
Antithesis Theology of Ante-Nicene Church
-relationship to Jewish community-- Ebionites
-RElationship to the pagan Gentile world -- Celsus, Porphyry
Intellectually bankrupt (Ante Nicene Church)
Christians were charged with gross immorality, regularly committed incest and cannibalism (Eucharist)obstinate
Internal issues: theology [ante nicene church]
how do we speak about God; Task of early Church (trinitarian language) to figure out
Internal issues: christology [ante nicene church]
human, divine, both?
Internal issues: canon/scripture [ante nicene church]
Septuagint (LXX); OT
Internal issues: growth and nurture [ante nicene church]
-children aren't mentioned in early letters
-how to raise Christian children
internal issues: Church leadership [ante nicene church]
what qualifications must they have to lead the church
Internal issues: worship [ante nicene church]
-What should be read in Church?
-How should we pray? Who should do these things?
Internal Issues: ethics [ante nicene church]
-What is/isn't permissible behavior for Christians
-Encratites-Christians-no meat or marriage for christians
-Acts of Paul and Thecla
Political issues [ante nicene church] : Jews didn't have to participate in __ __ (just prayed for ...)
emperor; worship of Roman gods
Political issues [ante nicene church] : Why was Rome willing to give Jews a pass?
respect for ancient things
How did Rome view Christianity?
just another Jewish sect (local not imperial0
scapegoat for the Christians (group people already hated
Christianity is the last __ of the first generation and teh first __ of the 2nd city
Two charges against Christins [ante nicene church]
-subversive: Christianity undermined authority of family, treasonous loyalty of his realm
The province that Pliny was sent to govern. The western part, Bithynia, had more cities and was "Hellenized", while Pontus, the eastern side, was less populated.
Pliny the younger
-romans who admit to being Christians are sent to emperor
-acted on charges and conducted trials of the accused
-wrote a letter to Emperor Trajan wanted Emperor to tell him if what he did was correct [trials]
Two methods for treating Christians [ante nicene church]
-interrogation "are you a christian?"
-torture (slaves especially)--2 Christian slave womne
Trajan and Pliny Saga summary
-Trajan confirms how Pliny handles the case
-Chrisitanity is too diverse; must proceed on a case by case basis
-REnunciation is accepted; can recant and walk away
-Trajan detested that Pliny acted on anonymous accusation--in future accuses must sign name **No witch hunts
Around __ Decius becomes the new Roman Emperor
the 1000th anniversay of founding Rome (super patriotism)
Why did Rome lose greatness?
they thought because of Christians
What happens around 248 in regards to Christians?
persecution; every citizen except Jews must sacrific to Roman gods
What did Decius do in 250?
Edict to offer a sacrifice, take oath of loyalty and certificate proving they did this
What did teh 250 Edict do??
-initiated first universal and systematic Roman persecution of teh Chrsitians
-Porgrams-- locals would use this to physically assault Christians
witness; a martyr is a witness who gives testimony, martyrs continue to give witness to their faith and die doing so
3 chief literary genres for knowing about martyrs
3) acts = transcripts of trials
martyr letters examples
letter from the CHurches of Vienne and Lyons
attempted purge of Christianity
Extreme brutality of punishments inflicted on christians in persecution., many ...
thrown to wild beasts
-frail slave girl with Christian master
-Romans would torture slaves to testify against master; she would not give up. She would always reply "I'm a Christian." She was thrown to wild beasts who don't kill her then burned in a chair and ultimately killed with a dagger
Passions of Perpetua and Felicity
-diary of one of the women who was martyred; catechumen
-pregnant slave who gives birth in prison
apostolic fathers generally live...
in first half of the second century
Ignatius of Antioch
-bishop who wrote a number of letter on his way to Rome; executed in an area (colosseum?)
Polycarp of Smyrna
another apostolic father
Facts about the Colosseum
-built in part by Jewish slaves and financed in part by the booty of the sac of Jerusalem
-Many Christians were executed in Rome
wrote and defended the Christian faith (also to attack against Paganism)
apologist; gentile interested in Philosophy
Ptolemy and Lucis
-successful in convincing many people to become Christians, his wife divorced him
-Lucius was a character witness on behalf of Ptolemy but managed to get them both killed [martyrs]
athletic language of martyrdom
-death viewed not as defeats, rather victories
-victors not vitims
-tombs are called trophies
Language of calling and grace in regards to martyrdom
-if you are arrested, God was calling you to bear witness and will give you the grace to withstand your suffering
Martyrdom is sharing in what with Christ?
his sufferings and his victory
sacramental language of martyrdom
-baptism [of blood not water]
Sanctity/holiness of martyrdom
martyrs were the first people to be called saints
vindication of martyrs
special reward of martyrdom is that they are immediately raised and enter God's presence (don't have to wait for the end)
Cult of the Martyrs: 2 pagan precedents
thought they could continue to use their powers after death to help the living
meal on birthday at grave in cemetary
Christian cult of Martyrs
birthday meal was held in Church as Eucharist. Not on day martyr was born but on date martyr died (birthday into heaven) [June 2 for Blandina] "feast day"
Martyrs as intercessors
-can plead with God on behalf of the living
-prayers to martyrs were believed to be the most powerful when made at martyrs tombs
corpse, piece, personal object [churches eventually obtained relics/were built over grates]
Impetus, not deterrence of martyrdom
-ROme used persecution as a deterrent against Christianity
-it is an impetus not a deterrence for us [Tertuillian]
-the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church
Three categories after a persecution
brought to trial, testified they are a Christian, but hadn't been executed. Many had been tortured. Known as confessors since they confessed the faith
chickened out; either thought about denying the faith or did so; offered Roman sacrifice, cursed Christ, got certificate
Church disciples honor and praise... but...
martyrs and confessors but what to do with the lapsed
3 positions of what to do with lapsed
should forgive them whose faith was too weak for the challenge (ex: peter). Must restore them to a community of faith so their faith may strengthen so they can stand firm in the future
not in favor of letting them back in since they cursed Christ which is serious; no forgiveness; will keep them forever on periphery in state of disciple for the rest of life, never restore to full membership; permanent position
What is the prevailing position of what do with lapsed and explain
-recognize this is very serious but want to encourage repentance
Cyprian of Carthage
Church father who wrote concerning Decius's persecution: "The whole world is devastated"
fundamental stage for everyone; during which excluded from Communion
types of penance
-first step is of significant importance
-public confession--not a priest; in front fo Church
-formal reconciliation- church and clergy would pray for them and they'd be let back in
Who becomes emperor in 284
Diocletian __ government
What does diocletian say about fight for power in ROme
the solution can't be this continuous fight for power; only solution was to share power so he divided the kingdom between East and West
Each and WEst each had an
Augustus and Caesar
WEst Augustus and Caesar
C= COnstantius Chlorus
East Augustus and Caesar
Each Augustaus would reign for...
10 years then Caesar would become successor
Who is maximan's son is ___
Constantius Chlorus is __
Constantius Chlorus's son is __ but married to a ___ woman ___
What does DIocletian do in 303
What does Diocletian write in edicts
systematic persecution of Christians resumes (Galatis
4 forms of Persecution written in edicts
1) churches are destroyed
2) confiscation of sacred books
3) imprisonment of Clergy
4) forced sacrifice
Maximian and Diocletian __ so new Augustus's are... Who dies the next year? Who becomes new emperor and what happens?
Constantius Chlorus and Galerius. Constantius Chlorus dies the next year. Proclaim Constantine Emperor and huge struggle for power [Romans are too worried fighting each other to worry about Chrisians]
What happens in 311
Galerius is now ill
WHat ends persecution
Edict of Toleration issued when Galerius is ill; last real persecution
What does Galerius ask of the christians when he ends persecution?
for their prayers to save his life and resore his health; he dies shortly after [struggle for succession]
key players in struggle for succession after Galerius' death
Maxentius and Constantine were involved with the Battle at/of __ ___ and eventually there is no more maxentious, it is Constantine and ___
313: __ __ ___
Edict of Milan
What did the edict of milan do
ended Christianity; does not make Christianity a part of the Roman empire, it is just legal
After the Edict of Milan, Constantine defeats Licinius and...
becomes the sole emperor
325: ___ __ ____
Council of Nicea
What does the council of nicea do/discuss
-threat that the government will intervene in the internal life of the Church
-will use power to persecute religious opponents
-will move capital from Rome to a new capital which will be built on an old site called Byzantium
what is the religion of Constantinople?
eastern orthodox church
what is one of the results of the move to Constantinople?
an increase in the political power of Rome
grew up in a christian home but devowed Christian upbringing when he became emperor and tried to reinstate paganism
the majority of Roman inhabitants are Christian; paganism is declared illegal shortly after
In greek Mary =
In hebrew Mary =
7 different women in the NT named Mary (name some of them)
-mary of Bethany
the virgin mary
-the virginal conception
-the immaculate conception
-first declared dogma in the middle of the 19th century
-by special grace given to Mary, Mary was born without original sin and therefore didn't pass any on to Jesus
Mary of Bethany
sister of Martha and Lazarus
Mary Magdalene (gnosticism)
-she is the most...
-not only followed Jesus but helps to ....
-what was she like before
- prominent of all Jesus' female followers
-prominent of Jesus' female followers
-Jesus and the 12 through the villages of Galilee
-bankroll/fund his ministry
-Jesus' crucifixion (empty tomb, risen Jesus)
-sinful/fallen woman who is transformed by her faith in Jesus
The fabulous five fellows
-supports family (as a teen) by teaching and tutoring
-bishop appoints him to lead the teaching of those interested in the Christian faith
what happens while origen is a teacher
-inappropriate feelings towards female students
-castrates himself --> disqualifies him from being ordained
-continues teaching in Caesarea Maritima (1st biblical scholar; hexapla)
Origen's scripture has a 3-fold meaning
1) flesh/body = literal/historical
2) soul = moral
3) spirit = allegorical
origen as an apologist
2) against celcus
What is origen's 1st systematic theology?
On First Principles
-heir to origins theology; ordained bishop of Caesarea in 3B; died in 339 lived through Persecutions, Constantine, Council of Nicea, movement of capital
-1st Church Historian; church history
-becomes preacher for principle church in Antioch
-antioch > constantinople
-greatest translator of the early church
-old latin translated
Augustine was the most important...
theologian of the Western church
describe Augustine's parents
mom was Christian, dad was Pagan. Augustine was repelled by old Latin translations
Augustine acquires a ___
Augustine: Manichaen Religion
no meat, this form of religion was attractive for many reasons
Augustine embrace ___
Augustine is the most famous...
speaker in Milan in the bishop Ambrose; attends the lectures of Ambrose
Augustine shows that __ ___ is a viable option
Victorius had converted from Neoplatonism to Christianity....
-knows in his heart that Christians are right
-sends away his mistress, concubine, and their son
-moral conversion in 386
Moral conversion of Vicorious in 386
-agonizing over moral failures
-there on his bench are the letters of Paul
-enrolled for baptism and was baptized in 387
What are Augustine's works
confessions, City of God
Augustine's work: Confessions
praises God for grace he has given him despite Augustine's sins
Augustine's works: city of God
-how could God let this happen
-Rome is being punished for abandoning paganism
-Christians live simultaneously in heavenly city and earthly city
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