Socy TEST 2, CH 4.
Terms in this set (37)
The lifelong process through which people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture
Our sense of who we are, distinct from others and shaped by the unique combo of our social interactions
"Looking glass self"- We become who we are based on how we think others see us
We learn who we are by interacting with others
Cooley's three phases in developing self identity
1. Imagine how others SEE us
2. Imagine how others EVALUATE what we think they see
3. DEFINE our self as a result of these impressions
Happens during each of our interactons.
There are two core components of the self: The "I" and the "Me"
-When we are young we see ourselves as the center of the universe.
EX: the Me may want to go over and talk to the a cute boy but it fears rejection so the "I" does not act, go talk to the boy or flirt.
Our acting self, the part that walks, reads sings, smiles, speaks or performs.
Our socialized self, the Me plans action then judges ou performance afterward.
Individuals who are most important in the development of the self
The Prepatory Stage- Mead
Lasts until age three
Children imitate the people around them, esp. family members
The gestures, objects and words that form the basis oc human communication
Children use to learn symbols to get their way, and to learn to be part of society
The Play Stage- Mead
Begin to pretend to be other people
EX: doctor, parents, superhero, teacher
Play Stage- Role taking
Process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint.
The Game Stage- Mead
Children no longer merely play roles but now begin to
consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously
Consider the social postions of not only themselves, but of others around them too.
Game Stage- Generalized other
The attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his/her behavior
When an individual acts, he or she takes into account an entire group of people
Each of us seeks to convery impressions of who we are to others even as those others are doing the same, creating a kind of performance that we can analyze and understand
Goffman- Dramaturgical Approach
Interaction as if we are all actors on a stage, theatrical performers
Goffman- Impression Management
The altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satifsy particular audiences.
The efforts people make to maintain a proper image and avoid public embarrassment
EX: "There really isnt an itnersting person in this brown."
"The professor is incompetent
We have a natural instint that seeks limitless pleasure, this is at odds with our societal needs for order and constraint
By interacting with others, we learn the expectations of society and then select behavior most appropriate to our own culture
Cognitive theory of development- four stages in a child's thought process.
Cognitive theory of development- first stage
Young children use senses to make discoveries
EX: Through touching learn that hands are a part of their self
Cognitive theory of development- second stage
children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas
Cognitive theory of development- third stage
The milestone, concrete operational stage
Children engage in logical thinking
Cognitive theory of development- fourth stage
Formal operational stage
Adolecents become capable of sophisticated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in logical manner
The most important agent of socialization especially for children
The expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes and activities of males and females.
Rites of Passage
Rituals that mark the symbolic transition from one social position to another dramatizing and validating changes in a person's status.
Life course approach
Look closely at the factors, including gender and income that influence people throughout their lives from birth to death.
Based less on biology
Processes of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions, occupations and social relationships
The process of discarding old behavior patterns and accepting new ones as a part of life transition.
Total institution- Goffman
An insititution that regulates all aspects of a persons life under a single authority.
EX: summer camp, boarding school, prison, the military , a mental hospital, or a convent.
Provides for all the needs of its members.
Represents a minature society
People often lose their individuality within total institutions
An aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals.
The generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents, and their children. In regards to caregiving.
The study of the sociological and psychological apsects of aging and the problems of the aged.
Suggests that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of their relationships.
Social roles are passes down to maintain social order and function
HELP elderly withdraw from their social roles
Those elderly that remain the most active and socially involved will be the best adjusted.
Prejudice and discrimination based on a person's age.