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Bio final exam
Terms in this set (45)
fluid filled sacs that may store food or water in plant cells are called?
naturally occuring chemicals in plants may be useful in inhibiting cancer. One of these chemicals is found in grapes and peanuts is called?
in plants these organelles convert light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch
crossing over takes place during
in mitosis if a parent cell has 20 chromosomes each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes
the planned process of cell suicide is called?
thymine, replaced by uracil
One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA is replaced by a different base in RNA. Which base is it, and what is it replaced by?
sperm and egg cells
somatic cells do not include which of the following
the characteristics of parents were blended in the offspring
in mendels time most people believed that?
all of the above
-drugs that interfere with cell division are administered to the patient
-chemotherapy drugs circulate throughout the entire body
-chemotherapy drugs disrupt normal systems that rely on the rapid and constant production of new cells
chemotherapy is one common treatment for cancer. which of the following are aspects of chemotherapy
a bell shaped curve of phenotypic variation is a representation of
both a and e
-x chromosomes weigh more than y
-x chromosomes are more fluorescent than X
some fertility clinics now promise that couples can choose the sec of their baby. What technique might allow for this?
A third copy of chromosome 21
down syndrome results from which of the following chromosomal abnormalities?
both d and b
-normal cells have contact inhibition; cancer cells do not
-normal cells can divide a finite number of time; cancer cells divide indefinitely
which of the following are features that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells?
an absence of a second copy of chromosomes 5
cri-du-chat results from which of the following chromosomal abnormalities?
in humans the haploid number, n, equals?
amniocentsis involves sampling from?
the number, shapes, and sizes of chromosomes in an individual cell
a karyotype reveals?
animal cells have counters that keep track of how many times a cell has divided. these are called?
the DNA model is usually made up of how any strands?
the full set of an individual organism's DNA is called its?
which of the following pairings indicated by letters referring to blood type phenotypes CANNOT produce a child with B blood?
they are observed more frequently than recessive traits
which of the following statements is true about dominant traits?
mitosis and meosis
what are the two major methods of cellular division in eukaryotic cells?
a and c
which of the following are always the same in every unit of the DNA molecule?
if a section of DNA has 20% cytosine, then there is ___ adenine
a darkened square
in a pedigree chart an affected male is portrayed as?
multiple effects of a single gene is known as?
a garden pea
which organism did mendel use to work out the laws of segregation and independent assortment
if tall is dominant to dwarf, and two homozygous varieties DD and dd are crossed then what kind of offspring will be produced?
unrestrained growth and causes the cancer to spread; Can separate from the tumor and get in the circulatory system and spread to other parts of the body.
two identical alleles that code for the same trait; example TT or tt
parasitic disease caused by the protozoan (disease malaria is contracted)
represented by XXY
found that the proportions of the 4 nitro bases are constant for all cell types within a species but they differ from one species to another; A&T were same proportion and C&G were the same proportion
came up with exact model of a double helix with twisted shapes
Watson and Crick
population of a species
phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar, and 4 nitro bases
A&T combine and C&G combine
briefly state the chemical makeup of a DNA molecule. Which nucleotide bases always bond together?
protection; 2 phospholipids
what is the function associated with the plasma membrane that is associated with the cells? how many layers make up a plasma membrane?
mitosis is preformed by non sex cells; one time division; 2 of every chromosome; number of daughter cells produced twice the amt. 20---> 40
meiosis is preformed by sex cells; two time division; 1/2 of the number of chromosomes per cell; 4--> 2
compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis
continuous variation is seen in various traits like height, eye color, skin pigment, weight, arm span. ex of environment can influencing height with proper nutrition
discontinuous variation occurs in many genetically controlled traits - based on absence or presence ; examples blood type, eye color, albinism
how does continuous variation differ from discontinuous variation? give example of each type of variation. How can the environment affect continuous variation traits?
the amount of A and T were the same proportion & C and G were the same proportion
briefly state any two of Chargaff's rules that pertain to DNA
amniocentesis is a sampling of the blood cells and chronic villus sampling is a sampling of the placenta
two methods for collecting cells from a developing fetus include an amniocentesis and chronic villus sampling. Briefly describe what is involved in each procedure?
50; because they can regrow their telomeres- the thing that keeps normal cells from over dividing
how many times can a cell divide under normal conditions? why can cancer cells divide an indefinite number of times?
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