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SOCY TEST 2, CH 5
Terms in this set (52)
The shared experiences through which people relate to each other
"Social Construction of Reality"
Berger and Luckmann's idea that to describe the interdependent relationship in which we as individuals create society through actions and at the same time become products of the society we construct
In order to survive, we must establish a relationship to nature and with each other.
We become products of the worlds we create
We share the culture we create with others
No longer something "I" control, it is now in "Our" hands.
The more we share culture with others
The more resistant it becomes to change.
One crucial aspect of the relationship b/w dominant and subordinate groups is...
The ability of the former to set values and norms.
The way society is organized into predictable relationships
Refers to the social positions we occupy relative to others.
We can occupy many different statuses
Assigned to a person by sociery without regard to the persons unique talents or characteristics
Generally take place at birth
EX: Race and sex
We can do little to change ascribed status
We must do something to acquire an ascribed status
A social position that is in our power to change.
Our ascribed status can heavily influence our achieved status.
A status that dominated others and thereby determines a person's general position in society.
A set expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status. While we occupy a status, we play a role.
EX: Expect that a cab driver knows how to get around the town.
Actual performance varies from an individual to individual
When incompativle expectations arise from two or more social statuses held by the same person
The difficulty that arises when the same social status imposes conflicting demands and expectations
EX: people who belong to minority culture working in mainstream culture
The process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self identity in order to establish a new role and identity.
Role Exit- Stage 1
Person experiences frustration, burnout, unhappiness with an accustomed status and the roles associated with that social position
Role Exit- Stage 2
Search for Alternatives
An individual who is unhappy with his or her career may take a leave of absense, married couple and trial separation
Role Exit- Stage 3
Action or Departure.
Final action and leave job... end marriage, engage in other type of role exit.
Role Exit- Stage 4
Creation of New identity
Transition from HS to college, new self. Leave behind kid living at home, and take on studnet living in college independently.
Any number of people iwith shared norms, values, and goals who interact with one another on a regular basis.
A small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
Long term commitment, involve more of our "whole self"
Shape who we are and what we think about ourselves.
A formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.
More goal directed, part of ourselves.
Any group or category to which people feel they belong.
"we" and "us"
A group or category to which people feel they do not belong.
Any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior.
Two basic purposes:
Serve a normative function of settign and enforcing standards of conduct and belief.
Perform a comparison function by serving as a standard against which people can measure themselves and others.
An alliance, temporary or permanent, gearted towards a common goal. Broad based or narrow and can take on man different objectives.
A series of social relationships that link individuals directly to others, and through them, inderectily to more people.
Online rep as a character.
Organized pattern of believed and behaviors centered on basic social needs.
A component of a formal organization that uses rules and hierachical ranking to achieve efficiency.
An abstract modell of the essential characteristics of a phenomoenon.
Division of Labor
Specialized experts perform specific tasks
Workers become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice potential problems.
Hierarchy of Authority
Each position is under the supervision of a higher authority.
EX: president heads a college bureaucracy.
Pope heads the church.
Written Rules and Regulations
Clear standards for an adequet or exceptional performacnce.
Overzealous conformity to official regulations in which we lose sight of htelarger principle from which the rule was created .
work "without hatred or passion"
Judged on performance rather than personality.
Employment based on technical qualifications
Hiring is based on technical qualifications and performance rather than favoritism .
"what you know, not who you know"
the process by which a group, organizations, or social movements increasily rely on technical-rational decision making in the pursuit of efficency.
The process by which the princeiples of efficiency, calculability, predictablility, and control shape organization and decision making, in the US and around the world.
Iron law of oligarchy
All organizations, even democratic ones, tend to develop into bureaucracy ruled by an elite few (oligarchy)
Classical theory of formal organizations
Scientific management approach
Workers are motivated by economic rewards.
Human relations approach
emphasizes the roles of people, comm, and paritipation
Interaction and small group behavior.
Typical of rural life. Small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiences
a community, often urban, that is large and impersonal, with little commitment to the group or consensus on values
Mechanical solidarity- Durkheim
Social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skills in which things function more or less the way they always have, with minimal change.
Same basic tasks, together.
Organic solidarity- Durkheim
social order based on interdependence and cooperation among people performing a wide range of diverse and specialized tasks; found in societies that have a complex division of labor, Social interdependency based on a high degree of specialization in roles.
No one can exist alone, all depend on each other while performing different tasks.
Earliest: hunter gatherer, move constantly in search of food, use whats readily available.
Horticulture societies: people plant seeds and crops, less nomadic than hunter-gatherers
Agrarian- engaged primarily in the production of food but tech. innovations such as the plow allow farmers to dramatically increase crop yield.
One that depends on mechanization to produce goods and services.
Post industrial society
Procsessing and control of information.
Main output is services rather than manufactured goods.
Technologically sophisticated, pluralistic, interconnected globalized society.
Stories, images, choices, networks.