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38 terms

Diabetes Mellitus

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polyuria
excessive peeing
polydipsia
excessive thirst
polyphagia
excessive eating
below 100
target range for LDL
below 150
target range for triglycerides
Men above 40, women above 50
target range for HDL in men and women
below 180
target range for peak postmeal plasma glucose
90-130
target range for premeal plasma glucose
carbohydrates, fats, cholesterol
50-60% fats 20-30% with 10% only for saturated fats and below 300 for this.
10-20%
protein
amount per meal
1 unit of insulin for 15 g carb
carb budget/meal 445-60 g
food guide pyramid
Useful for type 2 who have difficulty with calorie-control diet
(above 250 mg/dL) ketones
Exercise with elevated blood sugar levels over this or with these in urine should be avoided
decreases
Insulin normally ________ with exercise
increases
Insulin need ________ after 1st trimester of pregnancy
1700 dollars
the cost of conventional therapy
4000 dollars
the cost of intensive therapy
5800 dollars
the cost of infusion pump therapy
sulfylurea drugs
first oral drug given to SKINNY type 2 diabetics
metformin
first oral drug given to FAT type 2 diabetics
test for keytones
glycosuria or elevated BG over 240 mg/dL
glycerol and fatty acids
fat broken down through lysolysis in Type 1s release these:
syndrome X
Insulin resistance syndrome is also know as
hyperosmolar nonketotic acidosis
long periods of severe hyperglycemia may result in severe....
third
gestational diabetes usually develops during the ___ trimester
IGT
2 hour post-glucose load 140-199 mg/dl
IFG
Fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dl
Advanced Glycation End products
The microvasculature of the retina, renal glomerulus, and the walls of the larger blood vessels, accumulate deposits of glycated proteins called
fruity smell
smell of acetone
repaglinide
works like a sulfonurea but peaks in 30-60 min and is rapidly metabolized and is taken with meals
metformin
a biguanide agent that lowers plasma glucose mainly by preventing glycogenolysis in the liver.
thiazolidinedione
act to increase tissue sensitivity to insulin, thus increasing glucose utilization and decreasing blood glucose levels.
Acarbose
slows metabolism of carbohydrates
Ultralente
longest acting insulin and is peakless
Regular
short acting, with an onset of activity at about 30 minutes to 1 hour after injection and a peak activity at 2 to 3 hours.
Lispro
rapid acting activates in 15 minutes and peaks in 30 to 90 minutes.
Regular
regular insulin taken prior to breakfast will peak at about midmorning;
holding, giving
hypoglycemia involves _______ insulin, and ketoacidosis requires _______ insulin.