1,529 terms

ESL Vocabulary B2: Wordlist (English Upper Intermediate)

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age group
people of a particular age
all sorts of things
many different things
and all that
and everything related to the subject mentioned
and so forth
together with other similar things
and so on
together with other similar things
and stuff
and other things, which may or may not be similar or related
and things
and other things of a similar type
and what have you
and other similar things
and whatnot
and other things of a similar type
assess
to make a judgment about the quality, size, value, etc of something
badge
a piece of plastic, metal, etc with words or pictures on it that you wear on your clothes for decoration
balance
when the weight of someone or something is spread in such a way that they do not fall over
base
the most important part of something, from which other things can develop
birth certificate
an official document that records when and where a person was born
broad
including a wide range of things
build up
to increase or develop, or to make something increase or develop
check-out
the place in a large shop, especially a food shop, where you pay for your goods
communicator
someone who is able to tell people about their ideas and emotions in a way that other people understand
compromise
to agree to something that is not exactly what you want
concentrate on
to direct your attention or efforts towards a particular activity or subject
consistently
without changing or stopping
convinced
completely certain about something
cut-off
a fixed point or level at which you stop including people or things
delegate
to give someone else part of your work or some of your responsibilities
diplomat
someone whose job is to live in another country and to keep a good relationship between their government and that country's government
effective
successful or achieving the result that you want
elite
belonging to the richest, most powerful, best educated or most skilful group in a society
endurance
the ability to keep doing something difficult, unpleasant, or painful for a long time
enthusiasm
when you feel very interested in something and would very much like to be involved in it
et cetera
used at the end of a list to show that other things or people could also be added to it; often abbreviated as etc
examine
to look at someone or something very carefully, especially to try to discover something
eyesight
the ability to see
feebly
in a way that is unskilful or ineffective
feedback
an opinion from someone about something that you have done or made
fit
healthy, especially because you exercise regularly
focused
giving a lot of attention to one particular thing
follow
to understand something
follow
to be interested in an event or activity
for instance
for example
genuine
If something is genuine, it is really what it seems to be.
get
to obtain or buy something
ginger
a pale brown root with a strong taste used as a spice in cooking
gist
the most important pieces of information about something, or general information without details
goal
something you want to do successfully in the future
good
suitable or satisfactory
good at
able to do something well
good with
able to deal with something or someone well
guitarist
someone who plays the guitar, especially as their job
hijack
to take control of an aircraft during a journey, especially using violence
hook up with (sb)
to get together with someone in order to do something
imagination
the ability to create ideas or pictures in your mind
immediate
happening or done without waiting or very soon after something else
in particular
especially
intermediate
between the highest and lowest levels of knowledge or skill
internally
inside a person, object, organisation, place or country
junior
low or lower in rank
justice
behaviour or treatment that is fair and morally correct
lack
to not have something, or not have enough of something
league
a group of teams which compete against each other in a sport
limitation
a rule or situation that limits something
listener
someone who listens
logical
using reason
majority
more than half of a group of people or things
make sense
to have a meaning or reason that you can understand
manage
to be in control of an office, shop, team, etc
mental
relating to the mind, or involving the process of thinking
modest
If you are modest, you do not talk in a proud way about your skills or successes.
multi-task
to do several activities at the same time
natural
Something that is natural exists or happens because of nature, not because it was made or done by people.
not think much of
to not think someone or something is good or important
obvious
easy to understand or see
overrated
If something is overrated, it is considered to be better or more important than it really is.
persuasive
able to make people agree to do something
physically
in a way that relates to the body
piñata
a container that is filled with sweets or small presents and is hit with sticks until it breaks, used at celebrations
possess
to have or own something
practice
when you repeat an activity to improve your ability
precious
behaving in a very formal and unnatural way by giving too much attention to details that are not important and trying too hard to be perfect.
psychology
the study of the human mind and feelings
pursuit
an activity that you spend time doing, often when you are not working
put in
to fix a large piece of equipment or system into a room or building, ready to be used
reflex
a physical reaction that you cannot control
relevant
related or useful to what is happening or being talked about
riddle
a situation or event that you cannot understand
scenery
the attractive, natural things that you see in the countryside
scholar
someone who has studied a subject and knows a lot about it
self-discipline
the ability to make yourself do things that you do not want to do
self-esteem
confidence in yourself and a belief in your qualities and abilities
sensitive
able to understand what people are feeling and deal with them in a way that does not upset them
set
to establish or cause to exist
simplistic
making something complicated seem simple by ignoring many of the details
sketch
to draw a rough picture
strong
If a taste, smell, etc is strong, it is very noticeable.
talent
a natural ability to do something
talented
with talent; able or skilful
tendency
something that someone often does, or something that often happens
that kind of thing
similar objects
the whole picture
a complete description of a situation, including every aspect of it
therefore
for that reason
thingummy
used when you are talking about something whose name you cannot remember
thingy
used to refer to something or someone when you cannot remember their name
think about
If you ask someone what they think about something or someone, you are asking for their opinion of them.
think ahead to
to think about things that will happen in the future
think aloud
to automatically say what you are thinking
think back to
to remember something that happened in the past
think for yourself
to make your own decisions and form your own opinions, without depending on other people
think highly of
to consider someone to be important and have a lot of respect for them
think long and hard about
to consider something for a long time
think of
to get an idea in your mind
think on your feet
to make a quick decision or give an answer quickly
think straight
to think clearly
think twice about
to consider whether what you are planning to do will have good results
tournament
a competition with a series of games between many teams or players, with one winner at the end
training
the process of learning the skills you need to do a particular job or activity
transferable
able to be used in different situations
visualise
to create a picture in your mind of someone or something
well-organised
good at planning things carefully and keeping things tidy
what's-her-name
used for referring to a woman or girl when you cannot remember or do not know her name
what's-his-name
used for referring to a man or boy when you cannot remember or do not know his name
whatsit
any object or person whose name you have temporarily forgotten or do not know
will
the mental power to control your thoughts and actions or to succeed in doing something difficult
accidentally
by chance or by mistake
alive
living, not dead
apart from
except for or in addition to
assume
to think that something is likely to be true, although you have no proof
basic
being the main or most important part of something
beauty
the quality of being beautiful
bizarre
very strange and surprising
bone
one of the hard pieces that make the structure inside a human or animal
bounce
to hit a surface and then move quickly away, or to make something do this
box
a square or rectangular container
branch
one of several shops, offices, etc that are part of a company or organisation
briefly
for a short time
by that time
at that moment
calmly
in a relaxed way
canopy
the main part of a parachute, made from cloth
carefully
with great attention
carelessly
.
carriage
one of the separate parts of a train where the passengers sit
catalogue
a book with a list of all the goods that you can buy from a shop, or of all the books, paintings, etc that you can find in a place
ceremony
a formal event that is performed on important social or religious occasions
choir
a group of people who sing together
circle
to draw a circle around something
cost
If something costs a particular amount of money, you have to pay that in order to buy or do it.
deliberately
intentionally, having planned to do something
dig
to break or move the ground with a tool, machine, etc
dislocate
If you dislocate a part of your body, the bones move away from their correct position.
due
expected or planned
duke
a man of very high social rank in some parts of Europe
earth
soil or ground
end up
to finally be in a particular place or situation
enthusiastically
with great excitement, pleasure and interest
establish
to start a company or organisation that will continue for a long time
fear
a strong, unpleasant feeling that you get when you think that something bad, dangerous, or frightening might happen
finally
after a long time or some difficulty
flu
an illness like a very bad cold, that makes you feel hot and weak
for instance
for example
fracture
to break something hard such as a bone, or a piece of rock
furiously
in a very angry way
gardener
someone who works in a garden, growing plants and making it look attractive
generally speaking
used to introduce a statement that is mainly or usually true
get by
to be able to live or deal with a situation with difficulty, usually by having just enough of something you need, such as money
give
to provide someone with something
gradually
slowly over a period of time
(the) ground
the surface of the Earth
have a tendency to
to often do something
heights
high places
immigration
when someone comes to live in a different country
include
to make something part of something else
inconvenience
when something causes difficulty such as unexpected changes or effort
incredibly
extremely
jump
a sudden movement off the ground or off a high place
jungle
an area of land, usually in tropical countries, where trees and plants grow close together
leave
to not take something with you when you go away from a place, either intentionally or by accident
lend
If a bank lends money, it gives money to someone who then pays the money back in small amounts over a period.
malfunction
a failure to work or operate correctly
master
someone who does something very well
meanwhile
in the time between two things happening, or while something else is happening
mine
an underground system of holes and passages where people dig out coal or other minerals
misunderstanding
when someone does not understand something correctly
mix-up
when there is a mistake because things are confused
morning glory
a type of flower which opens in the morning
next
The next time, event, person, or thing is the one nearest to now or the one that follows the present one.
observe
to watch someone or something carefully
offer
to say that you will pay a particular amount of money
opinionated
being too certain that your strong opinions are correct
option
a choice
owe
to have to pay money back to someone
parachute
a large piece of cloth which is fixed to your body by strings and helps you to drop safely from an aircraft
passage
a long, narrow space that connects one place to another
pot
a round container, usually used for storing things or cooking
princess
the daughter of a king or queen, or one of their close female relatives
promise
to say that you will certainly do something or that something will certainly happen
pure
A pure substance is not mixed with anything else.
reluctant
not wanting to do something
remember (+ ing)
If you remember a fact or something from the past, you keep it in your mind, or bring it back into your mind.
search
when you try to find someone or something
send
to cause something to go from one place to another
shack
a small simple building that has been badly built
shine
to produce bright light
show
If a picture, film, map, etc shows something, that thing can be seen in the picture, film, etc.
slightly
a little
spiritual
relating to deep feelings and beliefs, especially religious beliefs
spread
to increase, or move to cover a larger area or affect a larger number of people
suddenly
quickly and unexpectedly
super
used to emphasise an adjective
tangle
to become twisted together
tend to
to generally behave in a particular way
tight
firm and difficult to move
trouble
inconvenience or effort
truck
a large road vehicle for carrying goods from place to place
typically
used for saying what usually happens
untie
to open a knot or something that has been tied with a knot
voucher
a piece of paper that can be used instead of money to pay for goods and services
wave
a line of higher water that moves across the surface of the sea or a lake
way
how you do something
widespread
affecting or including a lot of places, people, etc
wish
to want a situation that is different from the one that exists
academic
related to education, schools, universities, etc
accompany
to happen or exist at the same time as something else
apparently
used to say that something seems to be true, although it is not certain
appeal
to interest or attract someone
apprenticeship
when someone learns the skills needed to do a job by working for someone who already has skills and experience
ashamed
feeling guilty or embarrassed about something you have done
assignment
a piece of work or job that you are given to do
ball game
any game that is played with a ball
basically
used to introduce a short explanation about something
be someone's thing
If an activity or subject is someone's thing, they are very interested in it and like doing it.
be used to something
to be familiar with something, having experienced it many times
bell
an electrical object that makes a ringing sound when you press a switch
between you and me
an expression used to tell someone that what you are about to say should be kept secret
blend
a combination of two or more things
brake
the part of a vehicle that makes it stop or go more slowly
break off
to separate from a larger piece
camper van
a vehicle containing a bed, kitchen equipment, etc that you can live in
campus
the land and buildings belonging to a college or university
carry on
to continue doing something
choice
the things or people you can choose from
chore
a boring job that you must do
classic
having a traditional style that is always fashionable
clear
to get rid of something
come into use
to start to be used
commitment
when you are willing to give your time and energy to something that you believe in
coursework
work done by students as part of their course of study
cover (verb)
to include or deal with a subject or piece of information
curriculum
all the subjects taught in a school, college, etc or on an educational course
cut down (sth)
If you cut down a tree or bush, you make it fall to the ground by cutting it near the bottom.
deadline
a time by which something must be done
dedicated
believing that something is very important and giving a lot of time and energy to it
determination
when someone continues trying to do something, although it is very difficult
dialogue
the talking in a book, play, or film
dissertation
a very long piece of writing done as part of a course of study
distance degree
a degree for which you study at home rather than at a university, sending and receiving your work by email or post
distance learning
a way of studying, especially for a degree, where you study mostly at home, receiving and sending off work by post
distinguish
to recognise the differences between two people, ideas, or things
district
a part of a city or country, either an official area or one that is known for having a particular characteristic or business
donation
when money or goods are given to help a person or organisation
drop out of
to stop taking part in something before it has finished
effort
the energy that you need to do something
escape
when someone succeeds in getting out of a place or a dangerous or bad situation
evening course
a series of classes for adults in a particular subject that happens in the evening
extremely
very, or much more than usual
face-to-face learning
learning which happens as a result of spending time with a teacher and talking with them
fellow
describes someone who has the same job or interests as you, or is in the same situation as you
first aid
basic medical treatment that you give someone who is ill or injured in an emergency
focus on
to give a lot of attention to one particular subject
for me
used to introduce your opinion
fragile
easily broken, damaged, or destroyed
frankly
in an honest and direct way
full-time course
a course which someone does for the whole of a working week
funnily enough
although it seems strange and surprising
gain
to get something useful or positive
get used to something
to become familiar with something or someone, after experiencing it many times or spending a lot of time with them
give something a try
to use something for the first time to find out if it is suitable or effective
give up
If you give up a habit such as smoking, or give up something unhealthy such as alcohol, you stop doing it or having it.
go out of use
to stop being used, having been replaced by something newer
goodwill
kind, friendly, or helpful feelings towards other people
guarantee
to make certain that something is true or will happen
hands-on
physically doing something and not only studying it or watching someone else do it
happy with
satisfied and pleased with
headteacher
the person in charge of a school
hopefully
used, often at the start of a sentence, to express what you would like to happen
idiot
a stupid person or someone who is behaving in a stupid way
impression
an idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone
in two minds
unable to decide about something
in use
used
influence
someone or something that has an effect on another person or thing
inner
Inner feelings, thoughts, etc are ones that you do not show or tell other people.
inner strength
a quality in someone's character that allows them to stay calm and succeed in difficult situations
introduce someone to something
to help someone to experience something for the first time
keep up
to continue without stopping or changing or to continue something without allowing it to stop or change
lecture (noun)
a formal talk given to a group of people in order to teach them about a subject
lose your temper
to suddenly become very angry
make good use of something
to use something effectively, with good results
make up one's mind
to decide something
medal
a metal disc given as a prize in a competition or given to someone who has been very brave
mentor
an experienced person who gives help and advice to someone with less experience
mixed feelings
If you have mixed feelings about something, you are pleased and not pleased at the same time.
narrative
a story or description of a series of events
narrow down
to make a number or list of things smaller and clearer, by removing the things that are least important or suitable
no way
certainly not
nominate
to officially suggest a person or their work for a prize
not mind (+ -ing)
If you wouldn't mind doing something, you are willing to do it.
obviously
in a way that is easy to understand or see
online learning
a way of learning that involves the use of computers and the Internet
patient
having patience
personally
used when you are going to give your opinion
plague
to annoy someone, especially by asking repeated questions.
postgraduate course
a course of study that a person does after they have received their first degree
prayer
the words you say to a god
pride
a feeling of satisfaction at your achievements or the achievements of your family or friends
qualify
to pass exams so that you are able to do a job
remarkably
in a way that makes you feel surprised
role model
someone you try to behave like because you admire them
schedule
a plan that gives events or activities and the times that they will happen or be done
seminar
a meeting of a group of people with a teacher or expert for training, discussion, or study of a subject
seriously
in a serious way
sign up
to arrange to do an organized activity
sound
how something seems to be, from what is said or written
squeeze
to press something firmly
surprisingly
unexpectedly or in a way that is unusual
take on
to accept a responsibility
thankfully
used at the beginning of a sentence to show that you are pleased or grateful about something
the use of
the act of using something
tire
the American spelling of tyre; the rubber covering for a wheel
to tell you the truth
used before saying your real opinion or feeling about something
unfortunately
used to say that you wish something was not true or that something had not happened
use something as
to put something to a particular purpose
use something for
to put something to a particular purpose
van
a vehicle that is used for carrying things but which is smaller than a truck
varied
consisting of many different things or types
vocation
a strong feeling that you are right for a particular type of work, or a job that gives you this feeling
vocational training
when people are taught the skills and knowledge that prepare them for jobs rather than for university studies
work experience
a period of time in which a student temporarily works for an employer to get experience
work on
to spend time trying to improve something, especially a skill
work towards
to do things that will help you to achieve a particular thing
a lot of
a large amount of
abstract
Abstract art involves shapes and colours and not images of real things or people.
actress
a woman whose job is to perform in plays and films
adapt
to change a book or play so that it can be made into a film or television programme
advisable
If something is advisable, it will avoid problems if you do it.
ambassador
the main official sent by the government of a country to represent it in another country
amuse
to make someone smile or laugh
ancient
very old
angel
a spiritual creature like a human with wings, who some people believe lives with God in heaven
anywhere
in or to any place
appear in (sth)
to perform in a film, play, etc.
appoint
to officially choose someone for a job
arch
a curved structure that usually supports something, for example a bridge or wall
artificial
not natural, but made by people
as far as
as much as
attraction
something that makes people come to a place or want to do a particular thing
audio tour
recorded information about a place such as a museum that you can listen to as you visit it
avenue
a wide road in a town or city, often with trees along it
baffle
If something baffles you, you cannot understand it at all.
bark
the hard substance that covers the surface of a tree
be sure to
to be certain to
bleak
If a place is bleak, it is cold, empty and not attractive.
blow up
to destroy something or kill someone with a bomb
bonfire
a large fire outside, often used for burning waste
bratty
behaving in an unpleasant, childish way
breakthrough (noun)
an important discovery or development that helps solve a problem
bronze
made of bronze (= a shiny orange-brown metal)
Buddha
a model of the Indian holy man on whose life and teachings Buddhism is based
celebrate
to take part in special enjoyable activities in order to show that a particular occasion is important
charming
pleasant or attractive
check out
to go to a place in order to see what it is like
commemorate
to do something to show you remember an important person or event in the past with respect
consist of (sth)
to be made of or formed from something
conspirator
someone who secretly plans with other people to do something bad or illegal
construct
to build something from several parts
construction
something large that is built
controversial
causing a lot of disagreement or argument
controversy
a lot of disagreement and argument about something
cover
to form a layer on the surface of something
criticise
to say that something or someone is bad
cross
a shape with a long vertical line with a shorter horizontal line across it or an object with this shape
debut
when someone performs or presents something to the public for the first time
decade
a period of ten years
dominate
to be the largest, most important, or most noticeable part of something
duration
the amount of time that something lasts
emperor
the male ruler of an empire (=group of countries ruled by one person or government)
emphasis
the extra force that you give to a word or part of a word when you are saying it
enormous
extremely large
entertainer
someone whose job is to entertain people by singing, telling jokes, etc
entire
whole or complete
erect
to build or put up a structure
essentially
used when you are emphasising the basic facts about something
euphoric
extremely happy and excited
extend
to stretch over a particular object or area of land
extraordinary
very special, unusual, or strange
extravagant
costing a lot
eyesore
a building, area, etc that looks ugly compared to the things that are around it
famous
known or recognized by many people
fascinating
extremely interesting
firework
a small object that explodes to produce a loud noise and bright colours and is often used to celebrate special events
forbidden
not allowed, especially by law
funeral
a ceremony for burying or burning the body of a dead person
go on
to last for a particular period of time
graduate
to complete your education successfully at a university, college, or, in the US, at school
grow
to start to do something gradually
heaven
according to some religions, the place where good people go when they die
heavily
a lot or to a great degree
historic
important in history or likely to be important in history
hot spring
a place where natural hot water comes up out of the ground
imaginative
Something which is imaginative is new or clever and often unusual.
impressive
Someone or something that is impressive makes you admire and respect them.
in addition
as well
in honour of
in order to celebrate or show respect for someone or something
inn
a small hotel in the countryside
intend
to have as a plan or purpose
jammed
full of people
knot
a place where pieces of string, rope, etc have been tied together
landmark
a building that you can easily recognize, especially one that helps you to know where you are
landscape
the appearance of an area of land, especially in the countryside
look forward to (+_ing)
used at the end of a formal letter to show that you hope to hear from someone soon
lyrics
the words of a song
make of
to understand or think about someone or something in a particular way
make someone think
to cause someone to have doubts about something or to consider something very seriously
make sure
to take action so that you are certain that something happens, is true, etc
miss
to not do an activity
modern
using the newest ideas, design, technology, etc and not traditional
monument
a statue or building that is built to honour a special person or event
nail
a thin piece of metal with a sharp end, used to join pieces of wood together
novelist
a person who writes novels
nowadays
at the present time, especially when compared to the past
old days
a period in the past
open
not closed or fastened
palm tree
a tall tree with long leaves at the top which grows in hot countries
pavilion
a large tent that is used for outside events or a decorative building in this shape
peculiar
strange, often in an unpleasant way
poet
someone who writes poems
public
all ordinary people
put up
to stay somewhere for the night
real
important, proper
realistic
showing things and people as they really are, or making them seem to be real
receive
to react to a suggestion or piece of work in a particular way
recommend
to advise someone that something should be done
recover
to become healthy or happy again after an illness, injury, or period of sadness
refreshing
making you feel less hot or tired
regard something as something
to consider something in a particular way
restore
to repair something old
right in saying
correct in your opinion or explanation
rightly
in a correct way
say
to tell someone about a fact, thought, or opinion
sculpture
a piece of art that is made from stone, wood, clay, etc
section
one of the parts that something is divided into
shrine
a place where people go to pray because it is connected with a holy person or event
signify
to be a sign of something
sitcom
a funny television programme that is about the same group of people every week in different situations
skyline
the pattern that is made against the sky by tall buildings
spike
a long, thin shape with a sharp point at one end
spire
a tall, pointed tower on the top of a building such as a church
start out as
to begin your life, or the part of your life when you work, in a particular way
statue
a model that looks like a person or animal, usually made from stone or metal
steel
a very strong metal made from iron, used for making knives, machines, etc
straw
the long, dried stems of plants such as wheat (=plant for grain), often given to animals for sleeping on and eating
structure
a building or something that has been built
success
something that has a good result or that is very popular
summit
the top of a mountain
(the) taxman
the government department that is responsible for collecting taxes
technique
a particular or special way of doing something
the Millennium
the change from the year 1999 to 2000 in the Western calendar
theme
the subject of a book, film, speech, etc
throughout
during the whole of a period of time
tourist
someone who visits a place for pleasure and does not live there
tower
a very tall, narrow building, or part of a building
traditional
following the customs or ways of behaving that have continued in a group of people or society for a long time
traditionally
according to tradition; in a traditional way
translate
to change written or spoken words from one language to another
tray
a flat object with higher edges, used for carrying food and drinks
try out something
to use something to discover if it works or if you like it
turn out
to happen in a particular way, or to have a particular result
universal
relating to everyone in the world, or to everyone in a particular group
unveil
to remove the cover from an object as part of an official ceremony
very
used to emphasize a noun
warm to
If you warm to an idea, you start to become interested in or enthusiastic about it.
warm to (sth)
to start to like something
warrior
a person who has experience and skill in fighting in a war, especially in the past
watchtower
a tower built especially around the edges of prisons and army camps, the top of which provides a good position from which to see anyone who is coming close
well worth
If something is well worth doing, you should do it because it is very enjoyable or very useful.
well-stocked
having a large supply of things for use or sale
win
to get the most points in a competition or game, or the most votes in an election
wingspan
the distance between the ends of the wings of a bird, insect or aircraft
work
a painting, book, piece of music, etc
Zen
a religion that developed from Buddhism
absent-mindedly
as though you are thinking about something else
adjustment
a slight change that you make to something so that it works better, fits better, or is more suitable
aesthetic
relating to beauty and the way something looks
agree
to have the same opinion as someone
all-purpose
used to do many different things
anxiety
the feeling of being very worried
appear to
to seem to
as
because
attractive
beautiful or pleasant to look at
aware
interested in and knowing a lot about a particular subject
blond
with pale yellow hair
bright
full of light or shining strongly
bureaucratic
involving long and difficult dealings with officials
case
a particular situation or example of something
change (verb)
to stop having or using one thing, and start having or using another
cheerful
bright and pleasant to look at
chest
a strong, usually wooden, container with a lid, used for keeping things in
civil war
a war between groups of people who live in the same country
clothing
clothes, especially of a particular type
consequence
the result of an action or situation, especially a bad result
consequent
happening as a result of something
consistent
always behaving or happening in a similar, usually positive, way
disagree
to have a different opinion from someone else about something
disastrous
extremely bad
doorway
an entrance to a building or room through a door
durable
remaining in good condition for a long time
dynamic
full of ideas, energy, and enthusiasm
elder
Your elder sister or brother is older than you.
elegant
stylish or attractive in appearance or behaviour
eliminate
to remove something from something, or get rid of something
emphasise
to show that something is especially important or needs special attention
environment
the air, land, and water where people, animals, and plants live
execute
to kill someone as a legal punishment
favour
when people like something or someone
fiddle with (sth)
to touch or move things with your fingers because you are nervous or bored
flashy
looking too bright, big, and expensive, in a way that is intended to get attention
foreground
the area of a view or picture which seems closest to you
forever
for all time in the future
frame
a structure that goes around the edge of something such as a door, picture, window, or mirror
gem
someone or something that you like very much and think is very special
gentleman
a polite word for 'man', used especially when talking to or about a man you do not know
giant
extremely big, or much bigger than other similar things
go along with
to agree with someone's opinion
go with something
to choose to accept a particular thing
green
relating to nature and protecting the environment
have in mind
to be considering something, intending to do something
highlight
to emphasize something or make people notice something
honest
sincere and telling the truth
imaginary
not real but imagined in your mind
imagine
to create an idea or picture of something in your mind
imply
to suggest or show something, without saying it directly
in favour
If you are in favour of a plan or an idea, you agree with it or approve of it.
innovative
using new methods or ideas
inspire
to make someone feel that they want to do something and can do it
joke
to say funny things, or not be serious
like
similar to or in the same way as someone or something
long-lasting
continuing for a long period of time
low-key
not attracting attention
make something feel (+ adj)
to cause something to seem a particular way
manufacture
to produce something, usually in large numbers in a factory
mention
to briefly speak or write about something or someone
miniature
extremely small
novel
new or different from anything else
out
no longer included
paperclip
a small piece of metal used to hold several pieces of paper together
perfectly
used to emphasise the word that follows
point
an opinion, idea, or fact which someone says or writes
poker
a game played with cards in which people try to win money from each other
portray
If a book or film portrays someone or something, it describes or shows them.
renowned
famous
resistance
when someone fights against someone who is attacking them
right
correct or true
see
to imagine or think about something or someone in a particular way
seem
to give the effect of being; to be judged to be
shade
a colour, especially when referring to how dark or light it is
size
how big or small something is
sob
to cry in a noisy way
straightforward
easy to do or understand
striking
very attractive
style
a way of designing hair, clothes, furniture, etc
such as
for example
suggest
to say that someone or something is suitable for something
suit
to make someone look more attractive
sunlight
the light from the sun
sure
certain
symbol
a sign or object that is used to represent something
sympathy
when you show that you understand and care about someone's problems
thought
an idea or opinion
tool
a piece of equipment that you use with your hands in order to help you do something
toothpick
a small, thin stick that you use to remove pieces of food from between your teeth
triumph
an important success, achievement, or victory
ubiquitous
seeming to be in all places
unobtrusive
not attracting attention
utter
used to emphasise something
virtue
a good quality that someone has
visible
able to be seen
weak
difficult to see or hear
work
If something works, it is effective and successful.
abruptly
suddenly and unexpectedly
accuse
to say that someone has done something bad
accuse
to say that someone has done something bad
admit
to agree that you did something bad, or that something bad is true
advertising
the business of trying to persuade people to buy products or services
all in all
considering everything
alternative
different from something else but able to be used instead of it
amid
while something else is happening
anonymous
not giving a name
arrest
If the police arrest someone, they take them away to ask them about a crime which they might have committed.
as long as
used when you are talking about something that must happen before something else can happen
astonished
very surprised
at the end of the day
something that you say before you give the most important fact of a situation
break into
to get into a building, car or container using force, usually to steal something
claim
to say that something is true, although you have not proved it
common
happening often or existing in large numbers
community service
work that someone who has committed a crime does to help other people instead of going to prison
concerned
if we are discussing or thinking about a particular thing
connect
to join two things or places together
consider
to think carefully about a decision or something you might do
crime
something someone does that is illegal
cut
to remove part of a film or piece of writing
daydream
to have pleasant thoughts about something you would like to happen
dream
to imagine something that you would like to happen
drop
to decide to stop including someone or something
engage in (sth)
to take part in something
even if
used to emphasize that a particular situation would not change what you have just said
expected
...
face-to-face
directly, meeting someone in the same place
file sharing
the activity of putting a file onto a special place on your computer so that many other people can copy it, look at it, or use it by using the Internet
fine
an amount of money that you must pay for breaking a law or rule
first thing
at the earliest time in the day
flesh-and-blood
involving a real person who is present
gamer
someone who plays games, especially computer games
go ahead
to start to do something
hack
to use a computer to illegally get into someone else's computer system and read the information that is kept there
historically
in a way that is connected to history
homepage
the first page that you see when you look at a website on the Internet
important
valuable, useful, or necessary
in response to
as a reaction to
interact
to talk and do things with other people
link
to make a connection between two or more people, things, or ideas
long-term
continuing a long time into the future
low-quality
of a poor standard
maximum
The maximum amount of something is the largest amount that is allowed or possible.
measure
a way of achieving something or dealing with a situation
middle-aged
in the middle of your life before you are old
move
to change place or position, or to make something change place or position
movie
a film
on the other hand
used for introducing an opposite opinion or way of thinking about something
other side
the opposite way of considering a situation
otherwise
used when saying what will happen if someone does not obey an order or do what has been suggested
password
a secret word that allows you to do something, such as use your computer
place
to put something in a particular position
portrait
a painting, drawing, or photograph of someone
present
to give people information in a formal way
pressure
when someone tries to make someone else do something by arguing, persuading, etc.
prison
a place where criminals are kept as a punishment
proper
socially acceptable
propose
to suggest a plan or action
punishment
when someone is punished
real-world
the set of situations most humans have to deal with in their lives, rather than what happens in stories, films, etc
reportedly
If something has reportedly happened or is reportedly a fact, people say it has happened or is true.
rival
someone or something that is competing with another person or thing
role-playing
involving an activity in which people pretend to be other people
seek
to try to find or get something
sentence
a punishment that a judge gives to someone who has committed a crime
sentence
to give a punishment to someone who has committed a crime
shift
to move something to another place
sour
very unfriendly or unpleasant
status
the position that you have in relation to other people because of your job or social position
stick
put (informal)
story
an explanation of why something happened, which may not be true
sum up
to describe briefly the important facts or characteristics of something or someone
suspect
to think that someone may have committed a crime or done something bad
suspect
to think that someone may have committed a crime or done something bad
swap
to exchange one thing for another
switch
to exchange one thing for another
take action
to do something to deal with a situation
taxpayer
a person who pays tax
terminate
If you terminate something, you make it end.
that way
as a result of doing that
under
according to a rule, law, etc
unheard of
never having happened before
unless
except if
virtual
using computer images and sounds that make you think an imagined situation is real
virtual reality
when a computer produces images and sounds that make you feel an imagined situation is real
virtually
in a way that uses computer images and sounds that make you think an imagined situation is real
worldwide
in all parts of the world
accusation
when you say that someone has done something bad
alternatively
used to give a second possibility
amuse
to keep someone interested and help them to have an enjoyable time
answer
a solution to a problem
anticipate
to expect something, or to prepare for something before it happens
approach
a way of doing something
ask
to say something to someone as a question which you want them to answer
atom
the smallest unit that an element can be divided into
awake
to wake up
benzene
a colourless liquid made from petroleum, from which plastics and many chemical products can be made
chemical
relating to chemistry or chemicals
close down
If a business or organisation closes down, it stops operating.
come
to have or achieve a particular position in a race, competition, list, etc.
come across
to seem to be a particular type of person
come across something
to find something by chance
come along
to start to exist
come as
If an event or decision comes as a shock, disappointment or relief, etc., it causes those feelings.
come in
to become involved in a situation, story or plan
come out
If a book, record, film, etc comes out, it becomes available for people to buy or see.
come round
to visit someone at their house
come to
to be a particular total when numbers or amounts are added together
come to someone
If a thought or idea comes to you, you suddenly start to think about it.
come up
If a problem or difficult situation comes up, it happens.
come up with
to suggest or think of an idea or plan
complicated
involving a lot of different parts, in a way that is difficult to understand
composition
the process of writing something
cottage
a small house, usually in the countryside
decide
to choose something after thinking about several possibilities
delicate
needing to be dealt with very carefully
difficult
not easy and needing skill or effort to do or understand
distract
to make someone stop giving their attention to something
draft
a piece of writing or a plan that is not yet in its finished form
equality
when everyone is equal and has the same opportunities, rights, etc
equation
when you show that two amounts are equal using mathematical symbols
feasible
possible to do
figure out
to finally understand or find the solution to something, after thinking for a while
find
to think or feel a particular way about someone or something
find out
to discover something or someone that you have been searching for
foreign-language
written or spoken in a language that is not your own
fundamentally
in a basic and important way
get an idea from something
to develop a thought about something that you want to do as a result of something else
ghost
the spirit of a dead person which appears to people who are alive
give up on
to stop doing something before it is finished because it is too difficult or it is not successful
goddess
a female spirit that people pray to and who they believe has control over parts of the world or nature
halfway
in the middle of a period of time
haunt
If a ghost or other creature haunts a place, it appears there often.
idea
an understanding, thought, or picture in your mind
ignore
to pay no attention to something or someone
imagery
the use of words or pictures in books, films, paintings, etc to describe ideas or situations
inactive
not active or working
innocent
not guilty of committing a crime
inspiration
a sudden good idea about what you should do
inspire
to give someone an idea for a book, play, painting, etc
install
to put a piece of equipment somewhere and make it ready to use
insult
to say or do something to someone that is rude and offensive
kneel
to go down into or stay in a position where one or both of your knees are on the ground
meditate
to think calm thoughts for a long period in order to relax or as a religious activity
microscope
a piece of scientific equipment which uses lenses (=pieces of curved glass) to make very small objects look bigger
mind
to be annoyed or worried by something
minister
a politician who is responsible for a government department or has an important position in it
molecule
the smallest unit of a substance, consisting of one or more atoms
mull over
to think carefully about something for a long time
mystery
something strange or unknown that cannot be explained or understood
none of my business
If something is none of someone's business, they do not need to know about it, although they want to, because it does not affect them.
nosy
always trying to find out private things about other people
null
having no substance or value
original
special and interesting because of not being the same as others
personal
relating to the private parts of someone's life, including their relationships and feelings
phenomenon
something that exists or happens, usually something unusual
poll
when people are asked questions to discover what they think about a subject
practical
suitable or useful for a situation which may involve some difficulty
progress
to improve or develop in skills, knowledge, etc
prospective
Prospective buyers, employers, parents, etc., are not yet buyers, employers, parents, etc., but are expected to be in the future.
pry
to try to discover private things about people
put off
to decide or arrange to delay an event or activity until a later time
readership
the number and type of people who read a particular newspaper, magazine, etc
realise
to understand a situation, sometimes suddenly
reject
to refuse to accept or agree with something
revise
to change something so that it is more accurate
slack
a period of time when someone is not very busy
solution
the answer to a problem
solve
to find the answer to something
specifically
for a particular reason, purpose, etc
stormy
If it is stormy, the weather is bad with a lot of wind and rain.
(the) supernatural
things that cannot be explained by our knowledge of science or nature
swan
a large, white bird with a long neck which lives on lakes and rivers
tackle
to try to deal with a problem
tale
a story, especially one which is not true or is difficult to believe
talk
to say things to someone
terror
a feeling of being very frightened
thief
someone who steals things
thus
used after saying a fact to introduce what then happened as a result
tricky
difficult to deal with or do
tub
a large container that you fill with water and sit in to wash
twist
to turn part of your body to face a different direction
vanish
to disappear suddenly
work out
to understand something or to find the answer to something by thinking about it
worth (+ ing)
how important or useful someone or something is
a good thing
If it's a good thing that something happened, it is lucky that it happened.
absorb
to understand and remember facts that you read or hear
accent
the way in which someone pronounces words, influenced by the country or area they come from, or their social class
admin
the work of organising and arranging the operation of something such as a business
advance
happening or ready before an event
alarm clock
a clock that you can set to wake you up at a particular time with a loud noise
apology
something you say or write to say that you are sorry about something you have done
appalled
extremely shocked or upset
asleep
sleeping or not awake
assurance
a promise
bilingual
using or able to speak two languages
black and blue
with dark marks on your skin caused by being hit or having an accident
can't
cannot
cheek
the soft part of your face below your eye
clean and tidy
with nothing dirty and everything ordered and in the right place
clerk
someone who works in an office or bank, keeping records and doing general office work
colloquially
in an informal situation
common language
a language that everyone in two or more groups speaks
complaint
when someone says that something is wrong or not satisfactory
complimentary
given free, especially by a business
confidence
trusting someone's ability or believing that something will produce good results
conservative
not trusting sudden changes or new ideas
could
used to express possibility, especially slight or uncertain possibility
couldn't
used to express possibility, especially slight or uncertain possibility
dead or alive
whether now living or not
decent
of a satisfactory quality or level
delighted
very pleased
dialect
a form of a language that people speak in a particular part of a country
dissatisfaction
when you are not pleased or happy with something
embarrass
to make someone feel ashamed or shy
ensure
to make certain that something is done or happens
expect
to think that something will happen
express
to show what you think or how you feel using words or actions
fascinated
extremely interested
first language
the language that someone learns to speak first
for one reason or another
used for saying that there are a number of reasons for something but that you are not going to explain them now
formal
public or official
glad
happy about something
grandchild
the child of your son or daughter
here and there
in several different places but without any pattern
homesick
feeling sad because you are away from your home
hope
to want something to happen or be true
horrified
very shocked
host
someone who invites people to a meal or a party, or to stay in their home
humiliated
describes someone who has been made to feel ashamed or stupid
if only
used when you want to say how doing something simple would make it possible to avoid something unpleasant
in and out
into and out of a place
incident
an event, especially one that is bad or unusual
inform
to tell someone about something
insist on
to demand something forcefully
intrigue
If someone or something intrigues you, they interest you very much.
isolated
alone and not having help or support from other people
keep up with (sb)
to move at the same speed as someone or something that is moving forward so that you stay level with them
language
communication between people, usually using words
linguistic
relating to language or linguistics
may
used to talk about what is possibly true or will possibly happen
may well
If you say that something may well happen, you mean that it is likely to happen
might have
used to talk about what was possibly true
mince your words
If you do not mince your words, you say what you mean directly, even if this upsets people.
monolingual
using only one language
more or less
almost
mortified
very embarrassed
mother tongue
the first language that you learn when you are a child
mother tongue
the first language you learn when you are a baby
multilingual
using or speaking more than two languages
must
used to show that you think something is very likely or certain to be true
mystify
If something mystifies someone, they cannot understand or explain it because it is confusing or complicated.
occur
to happen, often without being planned
odds and ends
various things of different types, usually small and not important or of little value
official language
a language that has a special importance in a country, often the language used in its courts and parliament
out of place
not right or suitable for a particular situation
pen friend
someone who you write friendly letters to regularly, but you have never met
point out
to make a person notice someone or something, usually by telling them where they are or by holding up one of your fingers towards them
proficient
very good at something
puritanical
having very strict ways of behaving
rain or shine
whatever the weather is
reaction
something you say, feel, or do because of something that has happened
refer to (sth)
to talk or write about someone or something, especially briefly
refuse
to say that you will not do or accept something
regional language
a language that is used only in a part of a country
regret
used to say that you are sorry that you have to tell someone about a situation
related to (sth)
connected to or similar to something
restore
to make something good exist again
rigid
not able to change or be changed easily
romance
an exciting relationship of love between two people, often a short one
second language
a language that you speak that is not the first language you learned as a child
sick and tired
angry and bored because something unpleasant has been happening for too long
sooner or later
used to say that you do not know exactly when something will happen, but you are sure that it will happen
sorry
used to show sympathy or sadness for a person or situation
split up
If two people who have a romantic relationship split up, they finish their relationship.
strongly
very much or in a very serious way
take steps
to do things to achieve something
theme park
a park with entertainments, such as games, machines to ride on, restaurants, etc, that are all based on one idea
thrilled
very excited and pleased
trade
to buy and sell goods or services, especially between countries
trial and error
a way of learning the best way to do something by trying different methods
trust
to hope and expect that something is true
wander
to walk slowly about a place without any purpose
a high level of
If someone or something has a high level of something, they have a large amount of that thing.
a high profile
If someone or something has a high profile, they receive a lot of public attention.
accountable
having to be responsible for what you do and able to explain your actions
act as
to do a particular job, especially one that you do not normally do
active
very involved in an organization or planned activity
answer to
to take orders from, obey and explain your actions to someone
area
a part of a subject or activity
attach
to join or fix one thing to another
belong to
to be a member of a group or organisation
big-budget
costing a large amount of money
blame
when people say that someone or something is responsible for something bad
boom
a long pole that holds a microphone
bullet
a small, metal object that is fired from a gun
bully
someone who intentionally frightens a person who is smaller or weaker than them
calculate
to discover an amount or number using mathematics
caramel
a sweet made from sugar, milk, and butter
Celsius
a measurement of temperature in which water freezes at zero degrees Celcius and boils at 100 degrees Celcius.
chalkboard
a board with a dark surface that you can write on with chalk
clear
easy to understand or see
come back to
to talk again about something that you mentioned earlier
conveyor belt
a continuous moving piece of rubber or metal used to transport objects from one place to another
cookie
a thin, flat cake that is dry and usually sweet
cool down
to become less hot
crude
made or done in a simple way and without much skill
cut into
to break the surface of something with a sharp tool
cut off
to stop people from continuing a telephone conversation by breaking the telephone connection
despite
used to say that something happened or is true, although something else makes this seem not probable
dip
to put something into a liquid for a short time
distinctive
Something that is distinctive is easy to recognise because it is different from other things.
divide into
to separate something into different bits
dozen
twelve, or a group of twelve
drop into
to fall into something
duty
something you must do because it is morally or legally right
either way
used for saying that the result of two different things happening would be the same
emerge
to appear from somewhere or come out of somewhere
end up with
to have something as the result of doing something
exactly
used to emphasize what you are saying
expertise
skill
fee
an amount of money that you pay to do something, to use something, or to get a service
flavour
the taste of a particular type of food or drink
football club
a club for people who play football
formula
a plan or method that is used to achieve something
glamorous
attractive in an exciting and special way
glue
a substance used to stick things together
glue
to stick something to something else with glue
go into
to move towards the inside of
go out of your way
to try very hard to do something, especially for someone else
go over
to study or explain something
guild
an organisation of people who have the same job or interests
harden
to become hard and stiff
high-pressure
involving pressure which is greater than usual
hold together
to make something stay in one piece
homeless
without a place to live
impossible
If an action or event is impossible, it cannot happen or be done.
in charge of
being the person who controls or is responsible for someone or something
in fact
used before saying the truth about something, usually when it is not what you would expect
in the way
preventing someone from doing what they want to do
ink
a coloured liquid that you use for writing, printing, or drawing
lifelong
for all of your life
liquefy
to change into a liquid form
liquid
a substance, for example water, that is not solid and that can be poured easily
literally
having the real or original meaning of a word or phrase
locate
If something is located in a particular place, that is where it is.
look at
to consider a subject carefully
mean
to have a particular meaning
member
a person who belongs to a group or an organization
microphone
a piece of electrical equipment for recording or broadcasting sounds, or for making sounds louder
move along
to go forwards towards the end of something
move on
to change from one subject to another when you are talking or writing
notch
a cut in the shape of the letter V on the edge or surface of something
on the way
going to happen soon
operate
If an organisation or business operates, it is working, and if you operate it, you manage it and make it work.
operate
to make a machine or piece of equipment do what it is designed to do
oversee
to watch work as it is done in order to make certain that it is done correctly
overtake
to go past a vehicle or person that is going in the same direction
pass through
go from one side to the other
personality
the quality of having a very strong or interesting character
pick up
to lift someone or something using your hands, a tool or a machine
play a part in
to be involved in something
pole
a long, thin stick made of wood or metal, often used to hold something up
pour into
to make a liquid flow into something
precise
used to give exact details of something
print onto
to produce writing or images on paper with a machine
priority
something that is very important and that must be dealt with before other things
process
a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result
put into
to place something inside something
put together
to move things next to each other
putty
a soft, grey substance that becomes hard when it is dry and is used to fasten glass into windows or to fill small holes in wood
regular
happening or doing something often, especially at the same time every week, year, etc.
relatively
quite, when compared to other things or people
report to
Someone you report to at work is the person in authority who gives you tasks and checks that you do them.
responsibility
something that it is your job or duty to deal with
responsible for
having control and authority over something or someone
role
the job someone or something has in a particular situation
rosebush
a short, thick plant with roses
run something past someone
to tell someone about something so that they can give their opinion about it
safely
in a safe way
screenplay
a story that is written for television or for a film
screenwriter
someone who writes the story for a film
seal off
to close an entrance or container so that air or liquid cannot enter or leave it
sense
the meaning of a word, phrase, or sentence
shell
a hard outer covering for something
shoot
to use a camera to record a film or take a photograph
shot
a photograph
smoothly
without any sudden movements or changes
special effects
an unusual type of action in a film, or an entertainment on stage, created by using special equipment
specific
used to refer to a particular thing and not something general
spine
the narrow part of a book cover where the pages are joined together and which you can see when it is on a shelf
standard
a level of quality, especially a level that is acceptable
start off
to begin by doing something, or to make something begin by doing something
step
one of the things that you do to achieve something
sum
an amount of money
supervise
to watch a person or activity and make certain that everything is done correctly, safely, etc
supporter
someone who likes a particular sports team and wants them to win
take a look
to look at something
task
a piece of work, especially something unpleasant or difficult
trim
when you cut something to make it tidy
turn over
to move an object or page so that a different side or surface is on the top
type
to write something using a keyboard
up to
the responsibility of
upcoming
An upcoming event will happen soon.
urge
a strong wish or need
vision
an idea or image in your mind of what something could be like in the future
voluntary work
work that people do because they want to do it and for which they are not paid
way of (+ing)
a method for doing something
way to
a method for doing something
work as
If you work as something, that is what you do as your job.
work one's way up
to succeed gradually in getting an important job by repeatedly changing your job for a more important one, having started your working life with little power or responsibility
ability
the physical or mental skill or qualities that you need to do something
acclaim
praise from a lot of people
accomplishment
when you succeed in doing something good
according to
as said by someone or shown by something
alien
relating to creatures from another planet
allow
to make it possible for someone to do something
ally
someone who supports you, especially when other people are against you
angle
the way you think about a situation
archaeologist
someone who studies ancient cultures by looking for and examining their buildings, tools, and other objects
astronomical
relating to astronomy
award
a prize given to someone for something they have achieved
beach
an area of sand or small stones next to the sea
beneath
under something, or in a lower position than something
benefit
something that helps you or gives you an advantage
biological
connected with the natural processes of living things
change someone's behaviour
to cause someone to act differently
change someone's mind
to cause someone to think differently or to have different beliefs
characterisation
the way in which something is described by showing its main qualities
civil servant
someone who works in one of the government departments responsible for putting central government plans into action
civilisation
a society with well developed social organisations, or the culture and way of life of a society
clue
a sign or a piece of information that helps you to solve a problem or answer a question
commercial
relating to buying and selling things
companion
someone who you spend a lot of time with or go somewhere with
compulsory
If something is compulsory, you must do it because of a rule or law.
consensus
when all the people in a group agree about something
conservation
the protection of nature
considerable
large or important enough to have an effect
cooperation
when you work together with someone or do what they ask you
crucial
extremely important or necessary
curious
wanting to know or learn about something
dedicate
to give your energy, time, etc. completely
depth
the distance from the top of something to the bottom
descent
a movement down
detect
to discover or notice something, especially something that is difficult to see, hear, smell, etc
differ
to be different
discourage
to make someone less confident or enthusiastic about something
discover
to find something
disturb
to interrupt what someone is doing by making noise or annoying them
diving
the activity of swimming under water or moving towards the bottom of an area of water
do research
to study a subject, especially in order to discover new information about it
effect
a change, reaction, or result that is caused by something
enable
to make someone able to do something, or to make something possible
enemy
a country or army that your country or army is fighting against in a war
era
a period of time in history that is special for a particular reason
essential
very important and necessary
evidence
something that makes you believe that something is true or exists
expedition
an organised journey, especially a long one for a particular purpose
expert
someone who has a lot of skill in something or a lot of knowledge about something
explore
to go around a place where you have never been in order to find out what is there
face a challenge
to have to deal with something difficult
fantasy
a situation or event that you imagine, which is not real or true
farmland
land which is used for or suitable for farming
focus on sth
to give a lot of attention to one particular person, subject or thing
free
able to live, happen, or exist without being controlled by anyone or anything
freedom
the right to live in the way you want, say what you think, and make your own decisions without being controlled by anyone else
frontier
a line or border between two countries or areas
galaxy
a very large group of stars held together in the universe
global
relating to the whole world
habitat
the natural environment of an animal or plant
hiker
a person who goes for a long walk in the countryside
hoax
an attempt to make people believe something which is not true
human nature
feelings, qualities, and behaviour that are typical of most people
impact
the effect that a person, event, or situation has on someone or something
implode
to fall towards the inside with force
in agreement
having the same opinion
inform
to tell someone about something
knowledge
information and understanding that you have in your mind
laboratory
a room used for scientific work
life's work
A person's life's work is the work which is most important to them and to which they give a lot of time and effort
litter
pieces of paper and other waste that are left in public places
locate
to find the exact position of someone or something
logging
the activity of cutting down trees for wood
map
to represent an area of land in the form of a map
marine
found in the sea, or relating to the sea
mention
a brief remark
mild
When weather is mild, it is less cold than you would expect.
minimum
The minimum amount of something is the smallest amount that is allowed, needed, or possible.
nuclear
relating to the energy that is released when the nucleus (=central part) of an atom is divided
obey
to do what you are told to do by a person, rule, or instruction
obliged to
If you are obliged to do something, you have to do it.
obliged to do something
to be forced to do something
off course
away from the direction in which a ship, aircraft, etc. should be moving
origin
the cause of something, or where something begins or comes from
panda
a large, black and white animal that lives in forests in China
pavement
a path by the side of a road that people walk on
perspective
the way you think about something
physicist
someone who studies physics
pioneering
using ideas and methods that have never been used before
planet
a large, round object in space that moves around the sun or another star
positive
Something that is positive makes you feel better about a situation.
precedence
when someone or something is considered more important than another person or thing
preserve
to keep something the same or prevent it from being damaged or destroyed
radio telescope
a device for receiving, for scientific study, the electomagnetic waves sent out by objects in space such as stars
register
to put information about someone or something, especially a name, on an official list
right
something that the law allows you to do
roam
to move around a place without any purpose
roar
a loud, deep sound
robot
a machine controlled by a computer, which can move and do other things that people can do
scan
to look around an area quickly to try to find a person or thing
scold
to speak angrily to someone because they have done something wrong
settlement
a town or village which people built to live in after arriving from somewhere else
so-called
used to show that this is an informal, little known, or new name that something or someone is know as
space probe
a small spacecraft, with no one travelling in it, sent into space to make measurements and send back information to scientists on Earth
species
a group of plants or animals which share similar characteristics
stair
one of the steps in a set of steps
stare
to look at someone or something for a long time and not move your eyes
startle
to suddenly surprise or frighten someone
state
to officially say or write something
submarine
a boat that travels under water
subsidise
If a government or other organisation subsidises something, it pays part of the cost of it, so that prices are reduced.
surface
the top or outside part of something
sweep up (sth)
to clear something away using a brush
threat
someone or something that is likely to cause harm or damage
transmit
to broadcast something, or to send out signals using radio, television, etc
turnout
the number of people at an event, such as a meeting or election
universe
everything that exists, including stars, space, etc
unmanned
describes a spacecraft, or a place where military guards work, that has no people present to operate or be in charge of it
vary
If things of the same type vary, they are different from each other.
version
someone's description of what has happened
Viking
a person belonging to a race of Scandinavian people who travelled by sea and attacked parts of northern and southern Europe between the 8th and the 11th centuries, often staying to live in places they travelled to
vital
necessary
wavelength
the length of radio wave used by a radio company for broadcasting its programmes
weed
a wild plant that you do not want to grow in your garden
whale
a very large animal that looks like a large fish, lives in the sea and breathes air through a hole at the top of its head
work with
to do things with another person or organization in order to achieve something
about
used before a number or amount to mean approximately
across-the-board
happening or having an effect on people at every level and in every area
advise
to make a suggestion about what you think someone should do or how they should do something
advise
to make a suggestion about what you think someone should do or how they should do something
allegation
when you say that someone has done something wrong or illegal, without proof that this is true
announce
to tell people about something officially or with force or confidence
apologise
to tell someone that you are sorry about something you have done
applicant
someone who applies for a job
arm wrestle
a contest in which two people try to press each other's arm down to see who is stronger
at ease
feeling relaxed and comfortable
audio book
a book that has been read aloud by an actor and recorded
automatic
certain to happen as part of the normal process or system
balding
becoming bald
bar code
a row of black lines on something you buy, that a computer reads to find the price
best (noun)
someone or something that is better than any other
bite
to cut something using your teeth
break off
to suddenly stop speaking or doing something
briefcase
a flat, rectangular case with a handle for carrying documents, books, etc
bring out the worst in someone
to cause someone to behave badly or show negative qualities
broadcaster
someone whose job is to speak on radio or television programmes
call off
to decide that a planned event will not happen
campaign
a series of organised activities or events intended to achieve a result
challenge
to invite someone to compete in a game or fight
challenge
to invite someone to compete in a game or fight
clam up
to suddenly stop talking, usually because you are embarrassed or nervous
clam up
to suddenly stop talking, usually because you are embarrassed or nervous
clean up
to make a person or place clean and tidy
climb down
to change your opinion or admit that you are wrong
close down
If a business or organization closes down, or if someone or something closes it down, it stops operating.
combine
to do two or more activities at the same time
come down
to fall and land on the ground
complain
to say that something is wrong or that you are annoyed about something
consumer
someone who buys or uses goods or services
correspondent
someone who reports news for newspapers, television, or radio, usually from another country
corruption
dishonest or immoral behaviour, usually by people in positions of power
current affairs
important political or social events which are happening in the world at the present time
cut down on
to start eating less of something that is bad for your health
demonstrate
to express or show that you have a feeling, quality, or ability
down
sad
down
to drink something quickly
enter
to start working in a particular job
fidget
to keep making small movements with your hands or feet because you are nervous or bored
fingernail
the hard, thin part on the top of the end of your finger
forearm
the lower part of your arm between your hand and your elbow (=the place where it bends)
get someone talking
to make people want to speak
go off
If something that makes a noise goes off, it suddenly starts making a noise.
good lord
something you say when you are surprised or angry
hairpiece
an artificial covering of hair used to hide an area of the head where there is no hair
half
one of two equal parts of something; 1 2 ;
handle
to deal with something
incompetent
not able to do your job, or things that you are expected to do, successfully
item
a single thing in a group of things or on a list
jocular
funny or intended to make someone laugh
joy
something or someone that makes you feel very happy
kick off
When a football match or other event kicks off, it starts.
logo
a design or symbol used by a company to advertise its products
manipulate
to control someone or something in a clever way so that they do what you want them to do
mix
to (cause different substances to) combine, so that the result cannot easily be separated into its parts
moped
a small motorcycle which also has pedalsparts which you press with your feet to move forward which can be used when starting it or travelling up a hill
nearly
almost
nearly all
all except a very small number of
obtain
to get something
over
more than a particular amount, number, or age
persistent
A persistent person continues to do something although other people do not want them to.
personnel
the department of an organisation that deals with finding people to work there, keeping records about them, etc
pirate
someone who attacks ships and steals from them
procedure
the official or usual way of doing something
proceed to (do sth)
to do something after you have done something else
put someone at ease
to make someone start to feel relaxed
put someone on edge
to make someone feel nervous
quarter
one of four equal parts of something; 1 4
refuse
to say that you will not do or accept something
renew
to arrange to continue an official agreement that was going to end soon
repetitive
doing or saying the same thing several times, especially in a way that is boring
resignation
when someone tells their employer that they are leaving their job
résumé
a document which describes your qualifications and the jobs that you have done, which you send to an employer that you want to work for
round off
to complete an event or activity in a pleasant way
run up/down
to move on your feet at a faster speed than walking
set up
to arrange for an event or activity to happen
slow down
to become slower or to make something become slower
snap
to take a photograph of someone or something
switch off
to turn off a light, television, etc by using a switch
symphony
a long piece of music for an orchestra (=large group of different musicians)
take up
how much people start to use or accept a service, or sometimes a product, that has become available to them
tap dance
to do a type of dance in which the rhythm is kept by the noise of the dancer's shoes on the floor
tattoo
to put a design on someone's skin using ink and a needle
terrific
excellent
therapist
someone whose job is to treat a particular type of mental or physical illness
threaten
to be likely to cause harm or damage to something or someone
tone down
to make something less forceful
transpose
to use something in a different situation
turn down
to refuse an offer or request
turn off
to move the switch on a machine, light, etc so that it stops working, or to stop the supply of water, electricity, etc
turn up
to increase the level of sound or heat that a machine produces
under
less than a number, amount, or age
up
not in bed
up
to make something increase
use up
to finish a supply of something
victim
someone who has suffered the effects of violence, illness, or bad luck
whereby
by which
access
when you have the right or opportunity to use or see something
acupuncture
a way of treating pain or illness by putting thin needles into different parts of the body
allocate
to give some time, money, space, etc to be used for a particular purpose
antibiotic
a medicine which cures infections by destroying harmful bacteria
application
an official request for a job
appointment
a time you have arranged to meet someone or go somewhere
approve
to allow or officially agree to something
arnica
a substance used to treat minor injuries such as bruises
as you know
used to emphasize that someone does know what you are referring to
associate
to relate two things, people, etc in your mind
attribute (sth) to (sth)
to say that something is caused by something else
awe
a feeling of great respect and sometimes fear
ballroom dancing
a type of dancing where a man and a woman dance together using special steps and music
believe
to think something, without being completely sure
believe in
to be confident that something is effective and right
brighten (sth) up
to make something more colourful and attractive
cancer
a serious disease that is caused when cells in the body grow in a way that is uncontrolled and not normal
check-up
a general medical examination to see if you are healthy
childish
Childish behaviour is silly, like that of a small child.
chilly
unpleasantly cold
coffee machine
a machine from which you can buy coffee and other hot drinks by putting coins into it
connotation
the feelings or ideas that words or actions give in addition to their usual meanings
consent
permission for someone to do something
consideration
when you think about something very carefully
constantly
all the time or often
convenience
when something is convenient
conventional
traditional and ordinary
critic
someone who says that they do not approve of someone or something
cure
to make someone with an illness healthy again
deceive
to make someone believe something that is not true
democratic
where everyone has equal rights and can help to make decisions
dilute
to make a liquid thinner or weaker by adding water or another liquid to it
discuss something openly
to talk about something in a direct and honest way
disease
an illness caused by an infection or by a failure of health and not by an accident
distinction
a difference between two similar things
divide
to make things or people separate into parts or groups
downside
the disadvantage of a situation
entitled to
If you are entitled to something, you have a right to have or do it.
ethical
relating to what is right or wrong
experience
knowledge that you get from doing a job, or from doing, seeing, or feeling something
fairly
more than average, but less than very
fatal
A fatal accident or illness causes death.
fatigue
when you feel very tired
feel
to think something or have an opinion
free of charge
costing nothing
further
far: at or to a place or time that is a longer distance away
go hand in hand
If two things go hand in hand, they exist together and are connected with each other.
guidance
help or advice
hammer (sth) into (sb)
to repeat something to someone a lot of times until they remember it
heal
to make a person healthy again
health insurance
when you make regular payments to an insurance company in exchange for that company paying most or all of the costs of your medical care
health-conscious
Health-conscious people try to keep themselves healthy.
help out
to help someone, especially by giving them money or working for them
high status
when someone is considered by most people to be important and a lot of respect and admiration is felt for them
hold sway
to have power or a very strong influence
homeopathic
Homeopathic medicines use extremely small amounts of natural substances to treat illnesses.
homeopathy
a way of treating illnesses using very small amounts of natural substances
hunt
a search for something or someone
hypnosis
a mental state like sleep, in which a person's thoughts can be easily influenced by someone else
illness
a disease of the body or mind
illness
a disease of the body or mind
impose
to officially order that a rule, tax, punishment, etc will happen
in part
partly
independently
...
injection
when someone puts a drug into your body using a needle
make
to produce or create something
malaria
a serious disease that you can get in hot countries if a mosquito (=small insect) bites you
manner
the way in which a person talks and behaves with other people
massage
the activity of rubbing or pressing parts of someone's body in order to make them relax or to stop their muscles hurting
medicine
a substance used to cure an illness or injury
no better than
having no more qualities or advantages than
offer
to give or provide something
on the grounds that
for the reason that
opposed to (sth)
If you are opposed to a plan or activity, you disagree with it and want to stop it or change it
painkiller
a drug which reduces pain
physiotherapy
treatment for illness or injury in which you practise moving parts of your body
pill
a small, hard piece of medicine that you swallow
placebo
a substance that is not a medicine but which a patient takes, thinking it is a medicine. The purpose of a placebo is either to make a patient feel better because they think they have been treated, or to compare the effect of no medicine with the effect of medicine when it is given to other patients.
policy
a set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations that has been agreed by a government, business, etc
potentially
possibly
prescribe
to say what medical treatment someone needs
prevention
when you stop something from happening or stop someone from doing something
principle
a basic idea or rule which explains how something happens or works
proof
a fact or a piece of information that shows something exists or is true
proposal
a suggestion for a plan
propose
to suggest a plan or action
publicly
If you do something publicly, everyone can see it, hear it, or know about it.
purchase
to buy something
reasonably
in a fair way, showing good judgment
reject
to refuse to accept or agree with something
relief
the good feeling that you have when something unpleasant stops or does not happen
remedy
something that makes you better when you are ill
repair
to fix something that is broken or damaged
research
when someone studies a subject in detail in order to discover new information
rub
to move a substance backwards and forwards over a surface so that it covers it and goes into it
rule (sth) out
to decide or state that something is impossible or will not happen, or that something or someone is not suitable
rule out
to decide or state that something is impossible or will not happen, or that something or someone is not suitable
rural
relating to the countryside and not to towns
scientific basis
If something has no scientific basis, according to science it is not true or does not exist.
serious
thinking or speaking sincerely about something and not joking
shamefully
in a way that is bad and should make you feel embarrassed and guilty
side effect
another effect that a drug has on your body in addition to the main effect for which the doctor has given you the drug
since
because
substance
a solid, liquid, or gas
suggest
to make something seem likely to be true
summarise
to describe briefly the main facts or ideas of something
surgery
when a doctor cuts your body open and repairs or removes something
symptom
a physical feeling or problem which shows that you have a particular illness
tax
money that you have to pay to the government from what you earn or when you buy things
tent
a structure made of metal poles and cloth which is fixed to the ground with ropes and used as a cover or to sleep under
thoroughly
very carefully
treat
to give medical care to someone for an illness or injury
treatment
something which you do to try to cure an illness or injury, especially something suggested or done by a doctor
tried and tested
used many times before and proved to be successful
understand
to know the meaning of something that someone says
vaccination
when someone is given a vaccine (= substance put into the body through the skin with a needle) to stop them from getting a disease
vaccine
a substance that is given to people to stop them from getting a particular disease
workshop
when a group of people meet to learn more about something by discussing it and doing practical exercises
worthless
not important or useful
absolutely
completely
accept
to agree to take something that is offered to you
agree
to decide something with someone
alternative (noun)
one of two or more things that you can choose between
at all
in any way
besides
used to give another reason for something
break down
If a system, relationship, or discussion breaks down, it fails because there is a problem or disagreement.
bring along
to take someone with you
bungalow
a house that has all its rooms on the ground floor
call (verb)
to ask someone to come somewhere
compensate
to reduce the bad effect of something, or make something bad become something good
compensate
to pay someone money because you are responsible for injuring them or damaging something
complete
used to emphasize what you are saying
compromise (noun)
when you agree to something which is not exactly what you want
confusion
when you think that one person or thing is another
corridor
a passage in a building or train with rooms on one or both sides
cul-de-sac
a short road with houses which is blocked at one end
definitely
without any doubt
depend on
If one thing depends on another, the first thing is affected by the second thing.
dining room
a room in which meals are eaten
donor
someone who gives money or goods to a person or organisation that needs help
entitle
to give someone the right to do or have something
ethnicity
Someone's ethnicity is what race or culture they are from.
face up to
to start to accept that a difficult situation exists
far
very much
fundraising
when you collect money for a particular purpose
gather
to think something is true because you have heard or seen information about it
generous
giving other people a lot of money, presents, or time in a kind way
go away
to disappear
happy
satisfied and not worried
have a word
to have a short conversation with someone about a particular subject, usually with no one else present
hollow
having a hole or empty space inside
implement
to make a law, system, plan, etc start to happen or operate
in any case
used to give another reason for something that you are saying, or that you have done
in that case
because of the mentioned situation
keep
to have something permanently or for the whole of a period of time
keep an appointment
to go to a meeting or event that has been arranged
keep my fingers crossed
to hope that things will happen in the way that you want them to, sometimes putting one finger over another to bring good luck
legal action
the process of going to court so that a decision can be made officially by law
load
A load of something is a lot of that thing.
massive
very big
motivate
to make someone enthusiastic about doing something
oat
a type of grain that people eat or feed to animals
official complaint
when someone tells a person in authority that something is wrong or not satisfactory
on earth
used for adding emphasis to questions, often when the speaker is surprised or angry
open mind
If someone has an open mind, they consider ideas and opinions that are new or different to their own.
opinion
a thought or belief about something or someone
overcome
to deal with and control a problem or feeling
participant
someone who is involved in an activity
passion
when you like something very much
pave over
to cover a path or road with flat stones, bricks, concrete, etc
photocopy
to make a copy of a document with a machine which produces copies of documents using light and electricity
portfolio
a collection of designs, pictures, documents, etc that represents a person's work, or the large, flat container that it is carried in
prepared to
willing to
provided
only if
put on
to make a device operate, or to cause a device to play something, such as a CD or video, by pressing a switch
put up with
to accept unpleasant behaviour or an unpleasant situation, although you do not like it
put up with (sb)
to accept unpleasant or annoying behaviour although you do not like it
rental
the amount of money that you pay to rent something
reputation
the opinion that people have about someone or something based on their behaviour or character in the past
sci-fi
science fiction
secret
something that you tell no one about or only a few people
session
a period during which you do one activity
shadow
a dark area made by something that is stopping the light
single
considered on its own; separate from other things
sort out
to deal satisfactorily or successfully with a problem, a situation, or a person who is having difficulties
take legal advice
to arrange for a lawyer to tell you what the law states or how you should behave according to the law
talk something over
to discuss something with someone, often to find out their opinion or to get advice before making a decision
terribly
very
thrash (sth) out
to discuss a plan or problem in detail until you reach an agreement or find a solution
throat
the back part of your mouth and the passages inside your neck
tobacco
dried leaves that are inside cigarettes
total
extreme or complete
visibly
in a way that can be seen
willing
wanting to do something
achieve
to succeed in doing something good, usually by working hard
advisor
someone whose job is to give advice about a subject
analysis
the process of examining the details of something carefully
android
a robot machine controlled by computer which is made to look like a human
apply
to request something, usually officially, especially by writing or sending in a form
appreciate
to feel grateful for something
appropriate
suitable or right for a particular situation or person
arise
to start to happen or exist
assist
to help
assistance
help
attribute
a quality or characteristic that someone or something has
basis
a situation, fact, or idea from which something can develop
before long
soon
bestseller
a very popular book that many people have bought
bossy
always telling other people what to do
cable
a wire covered by plastic that carries electricity, telephone signals, etc
candidate
one of the people taking part in an election or trying to get a job
circuit
a complete circle that an electric current travels around
circumstances
facts or events that make a situation the way it is
common sense
the natural ability to be practical and to make good decisions
computer literate
able to used computers well
confidentiality
when things must be kept secret, especially in an official situation
contact
when you communicate with someone, especially by speaking to them
contact details
your telephone number, email address, etc. that people can use to talk or write to you
contact lens
a small piece of plastic that you put on your eye to make you see more clearly
contribute
to give something or do something in order to achieve something together with other people
contribution
something that you do to help produce or develop something, or to help make something successful
covering letter
a letter that you send with something to explain what it is or to give more information about it
cursor
a symbol on a computer screen which shows the place where you are working
CV
a document which describes your qualifications and the jobs you have done, which you send to an employer that you want to work for
day-to-day
happening every day as a regular part of your job or your life
decorate
to make something look more attractive by putting things on it or around it
desirable
If something is desirable, it is very good or attractive and most people would want it.
dial
to make a telephone call to a particular number
double-glazing
windows that have two layers of glass to keep a building warm or quiet
draw on (sth)
to use your knowledge or experience of something to help you do something
dump
to suddenly end a romantic relationship
earpiece
the part of a telephone that you hold near to your ear
electrify
to supply something with electricity
electrode
a small object through which an electric current enters or leaves something
enquire
to ask someone for information about something
external
relating to the outside part of something
eye contact
If two people make eye contact, they look at each other at the same time.
file
a collection of information and documents about someone or something
fingerprint
the mark made on something by the pattern of curved lines on the end of someone's finger
future
the time which is to come
futurologist
someone who studies the future
gear
a set of parts in a motor vehicle or bicycle that control how fast the wheels turn
get in touch
to communicate with someone by telephoning them, writing, etc.
grade
a number or letter that shows how good someone's work or performance is
graduate
someone who has studied for and received a degree (=qualification) from a university
gratitude
the feeling or quality of being grateful
handle (+_ing)
to deal with something
handshake
the action of taking someone's right hand and shaking it when you meet or leave each other
high-definition
using technology that provides very clear, detailed images
human resources
the department of an organisation that deals with finding new people to work there, keeping records about all the organisation's employees, and helping them with any problems
in place
in the correct position
inch
a unit for measuring length, equal to 2.54 centimetres
insight
the ability to understand what something is really like, or an example of this
intend
to want and plan to do something
interior
the inside part of something
internship
a period of time spent doing a job as part of becoming qualified to do it
interview
a meeting in which someone asks you questions to see if you are suitable for a job or course
kickstart
something that makes something start to happen
laser
a strong beam of light that has medical and technical uses
lifetime
the period of time that someone is alive
long term
continuing a long time into the future
looking ahead
thinking about and planning for what will happen in the future
note
words that you write down to help you remember something
objective
something that you are trying to achieve
obsolete
not used now
offensive
likely to make people angry or upset
opportunity
a situation in which it is possible for you to do something, or a possibility of doing something
overhear
to hear what someone is saying when they are not talking to you
people skills
the ability to deal well with people and form good relationships with them, especially at work
pixel
a small point that forms part of the image on a computer screen
plan ahead
to decide what you are going to do in advance
position
a job
possibility
a chance that something may happen or be true
predict
to say what you think will happen in the future
prior to
before a particular time or event
prolong
to make something last longer
promote
to advertise something
prototype
the first model or example of something new that can be developed or copied in the future
quote
a document or a statement saying how much a piece of work will cost
rail
the metal tracks that trains run on
react
to say, do, or feel something because of something else that has been said or done
record
information that is written on paper or stored on computer so that it can be used in the future
reference
a letter that is written by someone who knows you, to say if you are suitable for a job or course
relentless
never stopping or getting any less extreme
residence
a building where someone lives
retina
a part at the back of the eye, which is affected by light and sends messages to the brain
rut
a bad situation where you do the same things all the time, or where it is impossible to make progress
salary
a fixed amount of money that you receive from your employer, usually every month
short term
lasting a short time
sledding
the activity of sliding over snow and ice on a long platform with strips of wood or metal under it
solar panel
a device that changes energy from the sun into electricity
solar power
energy that comes from the sun
spontaneous
doing things suddenly and without planning them
spontaneously
...
spur
If you do something on the spur of the moment, you do it suddenly, without planning it.
steer
to control the direction of a vehicle
strength
a good quality or ability that makes someone or something effective
surprised
feeling surprise because something has happened that you did not expect
telly
television
tiny
extremely small
trend