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310 FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (191)
_______Fiber arrangements generally increases the muscle's force production capability, while ______fiber arrangement generally produce greater range of motion
Hip Extension takes place around which axis
Newton's law of inertia states that:
A body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted on by a force.
The Fibula is _____ to the tibia
The ___________ is the point at which all of the body's mass and weight is equally balanced or equally distributed in all directions
Center of gravity
The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________.
________occurs when all the applied and inertial forces acting on a moving body are in balance, resulting in movement with unchanging speed or direction
Identify Newton's law of acceleration
A change in the acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it
Which of the following exemplifies a second-class lever in the human body
Plantar flexion of the ankle to raise the body on the toes
Which term describes the following movement: the movement of the top of the ankle and foot forward toward the anterior tibia
Muscle fibers running obliquely from a central tendon on both sides are:
Which of the following joints do not have motion in the sagittal plan e
Which of the following could be done to reduce the amount of force needed to move a lever
Move the Resistance closer to axis, apply the force farther form axis, decrease the amount of resistance.........all of the above
The frontal plane divides the body into _______________
Anterior and posterior halves
Spindle-shaped muscles with a central belly that tapers to tendons on each end are:
Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system
A defined area of skin supplied by the dorsal or sensory root fibers of a single spinal nerve is known as a(n):
Most articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement, such as synchrondoses and symphyses, are structurally classified as______
Muscles which cause or control joint motion through a specified plan of motion are known as _____ muscles.
Supination of the forearm and flexion of the elbow occur in the ________ and _______plane, respectively
Transverse and sagittal
The subconscious mechanism by which the body is able to regulate posture and movement is:
which term describes the following movement: the angle between the femur and the leg increases because the heel is moving away from the buttocks?
In the human body when the triceps applies force to the olecranon in extending the non supported forearm at the elbow (like when performing an overhead elbow extension), it exemplifies:
Which term describes the following movement: the femur moves straight anteriorly away from the pelvis
Foot prints left in the sand are an example of which of Newton's Law of Motion?
Law of reaction
The elbow is a hinge-type joint that allows for flexion and extension
During an eccentric muscle action, the force developed by the muscle is greater than that of the resistance
Bone markings can be divided into two categories: processes and cavities, and exist to enhance the functional relationship with joints, muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels
Hip external rotation occurs in the transverse place and around the vertical axis
During an isometric muscle action, tension is developed within a muscle but joint angle remains constant
While in the anatomical position the radius is medial with respect to the ulna.
Biomechanics is the study of mechanics related to the functional and anatomical analysis of biological systems.
which of the following is a common action of the middle fibers of the deltoid and supraspinatus
The trapezius lower fibers are involved in all of the following actions except:
Which of the following is not an origin of the latissimus dorsi?
Medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus
Which of the following shoulder girdle movements involves moving the inferior angle superiorly and laterally away from the spinal column to assist in raising the arm out to the side?
The shoulder girdle motion that usually accompanies glenohumeral external rotation is:
Stabilization of the humeral head in the glenoid fossa is a primary action of the_______?
The shoulder girdle motion that usually accompanies glenohumeral abduction is:
Which of the following muscles is innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) and brances of C3 and C4?
Which of the following correctly identifies the indicated muscle in the figure, the origin and insertion
Rhomboid major and minor, origin-spinous processes of C7 and T1-T5, insertion-medial boarder of the scapula below the spine
Which of the following muscles is most commonly affected by scapular winging?
Which of the following is NOT an anterior muscle of the shoulder joint?
An action common to the teres minor and infraspinatus muscles is?
Which of the following is considered to be an extrinsic glenohumeral muscle?
In the context of shoulder girdle movements, which of the following terms refers to the movement of the scapula medially toward the spinal column, as in pinching the shoulder blades together?
Which of the following correctly identifies the origin and insertion of the teres minor?
Origin-lateral boarder of the posterior scapula, Insertion-greater tubercle of the humerus on posterior side
Which of the following actions is associated with the middle fibers of the trapezius
Upward rotation, adduction (retraction), and elevation
Which of the following actions is performed by the serratus anterior?
Which of the following is the most often injured rotator cuff muscle?
The pectoralis minor is innervated by the:
Medial pectoral nerve arising from C8-T1
The origin of the levator scapulae is the spinous processes of C7 and T1-T5
The insertion of the pec major is on the flat tendon 2 or 3 inches wide to the lateral lip of the intertubercle groove of the humerus
The scapulothoracic joint is a true synovial joint, and its movements are independent of the sternoclavicular and acrominoclavicular joint
Glenohumeral joint stability is enhanced slightly by the glenoid labrum
he instertion of the serratus anterior is on the anterior aspect of the whole length of the medial boarder of the scapula
The deltoid is innervated by the axillary nerve from C5 and C6
The levator scapulae originates on the medial boarder of the scapula from the superior angle to the scapular spine
The clavicular head (upper fibers) of the pec major is innervated by the medial pectoral nerve arising from C5-C7
The action performed by the supscap is the same action performed by the infraspinatus
The coracibrachialis is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve arising from C5 to C7.
The origin of the deltoid includes the anterior lateral third of the clavicle, the lateral aspect of the acromion, and inferior edge of the spine of the scapula
The origin of the coracobrachilais is on the coracoid process of the scapula
Flexion of the elbow occurs in the ________ plane of motion, and supination of the forearm occurs in the ______plane of motion
Which of the following correctly identifies the indicated muscle in the figure, the origin and the insertion
Anconeus, Origin-posterior surface of lateral condyle of humerus, insertion-posterior surface of the upper ulna and olecranon process
There is a synergy that exists among the glenohumeral, elbow, and radioulnar joint muscles. Actions that involve radioulnar supination also involve glenohumeral _____________ and elbow___________?
internal rotation, flexion
The radial nerve innervates all of the following muscles except?
Which of the following muscles is best stretched by using a partner to grasp the wrist and passively take the forearm into extreme supination?
Radioulnar pronation is performed by all of the following muscles except the:
The chief function of the ____________is to pull the synovial membrane of the elbow out of the way of the advancing olecranon process during extension of the elbow:
Which of the following is an action of the biceps brachii?
Horizontal adduction of the shoulder joint
The pronator quadratus originates from the:
Distal fourth of anterior side of ulna
Which of the following is a posterior upper extremity muscle?
In the context of the radioulnar joint movement, which of the following terms refers to the "external rotary movement of the radius on the ulna that results in the hand moving from the palm-down to the palm-up position?
Which of the following elbow flexors acts in "true flexion of the elbow"
Radioulanr supination is performed by all of the following muscles except the:
Which of the following is an anterior upper extremity muscles?
The long head of the triceps brachii originates from the:
Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
The pronator teres inserts on the:
Middle third of the lateral surface of the radius
The elbow is a hinge-type joint that allows only internal and external rotations
The insertion of the brachioradialis is on the styloid process of the ulna
The pronator teres originates from the distal part of the medial supracondylar ridge of the humerus and the medial side of the proximal ulna
The insertion of the brachialis is on the coracoid process of the radius
The triceps brachii inserts on the olecranon process of the ulna
As the elbow reaches full extension, the olecranon process of the ulna is received by the olecranon process of the humerus, and this provides increased joint stability
A movement of the forearm away from the shoulder is best described by the term flexion
The insertion of the biceps brachii is on the radial tuberosity
The ulnar collateral ligament is critical to providing medial support to prevent the elbow from abducting when stressed in physical activity
One head of the biceps beachii muscle originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
The distal attachments (insertions) of the radioulnar joint muscles are located on the radius
Elbow motions primarily involve movement between the articular surfaces of the humerus and the ulna
The ulna is much larger proximally than the radius
Which of the following is the origin of the palmaris longus
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Which of the following is the origin of the flexor digitourm profundus
Proximal three-fourths of the anterior and medial ulna
Which of the following is the only muscle that flexes the finger distal interphalangeal joint (DIP)
Flexor digitourm profundus
Which of the following is the origin of the flexor carpi radialis muscle
Medial epicondyle of the humerus
Which of the following muscles performs abduction of the thumb?
Abductor pollicis longus
Which of the following is the insertion of the extensor carpi radialis longus?
The base of the second metacarpal on the dorsal surface
Which of the following is the primary function of the extensor digit minimi?
Extension of the little fingers at the metacrapophelangeal joint
Which of the following muscles performs action in the frontal planes?
Abduction pollicis longus
Which of the following muscles does not perform wrist extension?
Flexor pollicis longus
Which of the following is the insertion of the extensor carpi ulnaris
The base of the fifth metacarpal on the dorsal surface
Which of the following muscles originates on the lateral epicondyle of humerus?
Which of the following muscles inserts on the four tendon to bases of middle and distal phalanges of the four fingers on the dorsal surface?
Which of the following muscles performs adduction of the wrist
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Which of the following is the insertion of the extensor carpi radialis brevis
The base of the third metacarpal on the dorsal surface
Which of the following is the primary function of the extensor pollicis longus
Extension of the thumb
Which of the following is the "pointing muscle" that originates between middle and distal one-third of the posterior ulna?
Which of the following muscle performs abduction of the wrist?
Extensor carpi radialis longus
In the context of wrist and hand movements, radial flexion (abduction) refers to the movement of the thumb side of the hand toward the medial aspect or ulnar side of the forearm
The flexor pollicis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb on the plamar surface
The extensor carpi ulnaris and the flexor carpi ulnaris are the only muscles involved in ulnar deviation (adduction)
The three wrist flexors, from medial to lateral, are the flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, and flexor carpi radialis
Wrist joint actions include flexion, extension, abduction (radial flexion), and adduction (ulnar flexion)
In the context of wrist and hand movements, opposition refers to the movement of the thumb across the palmar aspect to oppose any or all of the phalanges
The flexor digitorum superficailias is innervated by the ulnar nerve (C8 and T1)
The extensor digitorum is the only muscle involved in extension of all four fingers
The wrist flexor muscles have their origin on the medial epicondyle of the humerus
The extensor digiti minimi is innervated by the radial nerve (C6-C8)
To stretch the flexor carpi ulnaris, the elbow must be fully extended with the forearm supinated while a partner passively extends and abducts the wrist.
Each finger has three interphalangeal joints, whereas the thumb only has two
carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which there is an increased pressure in the carpal tunnel, which interferes with the normal function of the median nerve
The insertion of the tensor fascia latae is one-fourth the way down the thigh into the iliotibial tract, which in turn inserts onto Gerdy's tubercle of the _________tibial condyle
Which of the follwing is NOT true regarding the bursae of the knee?
Bursae are composed of mainly hyaline cartilage
The medial compartment of the thigh contains the muscles-adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, pectineus, and gracilis---that are primarily responsible for ___________?
Adduction of the hip
The only "true flexor" of the knee is
Which of the following muscles is best stretched in a side-lying position by having a partner take the knee into full flexion and simultaneously take the hip into extension
The Rectus femoris is more powerful in extending the knee when the hip is in _________?
The gluteus maximus originates on the posterior one-fourth of the crest of the ilium, posterior surface of the sacrum and ________near the ilium, and fascia of the lumbar area
Which of the following statements is true about the biceps femoris
It is best developed through hamstring curls or leg curls
The vastus lateralis provides a(n)_____________ pull on the patella when contracting
The origin of the rectuc femoris is the anterior inferior iliac spine of the ilim and the groove above the _____________?
The most common serious knee ligament injury involves the ________?
Which of the following muscles is a two-joint muscle, effective as a hip flexor or as a knee flexor, and is sometimes referred to as the tailors muscle?
tibial division of sciatic nerve innervates all of the following muscles except:
The ________ originates on the inner surface of the ilium and the lower boarders of the traverse processes (L1-L5), side of bodies of the last thoracic vertebrae (T12), lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5), interverterbral firbocartilages, and the base of the sacrum
The femoral nerve innervates all of the following muscles except:
Which of the following muscles is important in providing dynamic medial stability to the knee joint because of the manner in which it crosses the joint and is also responsible for internal rotation of the knee?
Which of the following is true regarding the MCL?
Maintains medial stability by resisting valgus forces for preventing the knee from abducting
The gluteus maximus is stretched in the supine position with full hip flexion to the ipsilateral axilla and then to the contrlateral axilla with the knee in______________?
Which of the following is NOT correct regarding menisci in the knee joint?
The insertion of the ____________________is on the posteromedial surface of the medial tibial condyle
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis
All are superficial and palpable, except the vastus medius
Which of the following is considered to be an agonist muscle during hip abduction?
Which of the following muscles externally rotate the knee?
The iliopsoas muscle is located ______________and performs ____________ of the hip
The Q angle is usually _____ or less for males and _____or less for females
Which of the following is NOT an action of the gluteus minimus?
Abduction of the hip
The hamstring muscles function as a decelerator of the knee when decreasing speed to change direction and especially when landing form a jump
The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint that consists of the head of the femur connecting with the obturator foramen of the pelvic girdle
In the context of the pelvic girdle motions, anterior pelvic rotation refers to the anterior movement of the upper pelvis in which the iliac crest tilts forward in the transverse plane
As the knee approaches full extension the tibia must externally rotate approximately 10 degrees to achieve proper alignment of the tibial and femoral condyles.
The iliofemoral, or Y ligament is located posteriorly and prevents hyper extension
Tears in menisci can occur due both compression and shear forces during rotation while flexing or extending during quick directional changes in running.
Anteriorly, the pelvic bones are joined to form the pubic symphsis, an amphiarthrodial joint
The patella serves as a pulley by improving the angle of pull with the result being a greater mechanical advantage for the quadriceps during knee extension.
Hip Flexion refers to the movement of the femur in the frontal plane laterally to the side away from the midline
The ACL and PCL are located on the outermost anterior and posterior surfaces of the knee joint
The obturator nerve innervates both the adductor longus and the gracilis.
The popliteus originates of the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle
The pubofemoral ligament is located anteriomedailly and inferiorly and limits excessive extension and abduction
The knee joint can extend to 180 degrees normally although some individuals can extend slightly further.
Which of the following muscles has its insertion of the inner surface of the medial cuneifrom and bast of the 1st metatarsal bones?
proximal interphalangeal joint motion occurs about the _________axis?
Which of the following muscles can preform inversion of the foot when concentrically contracting?
Which of the following muscles has its insertion of the base of the distal phalanx of each of the four lesser toes?
Flexor digitorum longus
Which of the following muscles can perform extension of the great tow when concentrically contracting?
Extensor hallucis longus
Which of the following muscles can perform extension of the lesser toes when concentrically contacting?
Extensor digitorum longus
Which of the following muscles has its origins on the head and uppwer 2/3rd of the lateral surfaces of the fibula?
Peroneus (fibularis) longus
which of the following muscles is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve (L4, L5, S1)
Extensor hallucis longus
Which of the following muscles does NOT perform eversion of the foot?
Flexor hallucis longus
Which of the following muscles has its insertion on the posterior surface of the calcaneus?
Which of the following muscles in included in the anterior compartment?
Peroneus (fibularis) tertius
Which of the following muscles can perform flexion of the great toe when concentrically contracting
Flexor hallucis longus
Which of the following muscles does not perform plantar flexion?
Peroneus (fibularis) tertius
The "Tom, dick, and Harry" phrase refers to the ________________?
Tibilias posterior, FDL, FHL
which of the following muscles only performs plantar flexion
The flexor hallucis longus perfrom which of the following actions?
All of the above
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a muscular compartment of the lower leg?
immediately prior to and during normal toe-off, the foot should be in pronation and the leg should be in external rotation
The gastrocnemius muscle is innervated by the tibial nerve (S1, S2)
Heel-strike normally occurs by landing on the heel with the foot in supination and the leg in external rotation.
The tibialis anterior performs dorsifelxion of the ankle in the sagittal plane
Pronation is a combination of ankle dorsiflexion, subtalar eversion, and forefoot abduction.
Toe flexion is movement of toes toward plantar surface of the foot.
Inversion is turning the ankle and foot outward away from the midline of the body where the weight is on medial edge of foot.
The most common type of ankle sprain results from excessive inversion that causes damage to the anterior talofibualar ligament
Both the tibialis posterior and the FDL are innervated by the tibial nerve (S1,S2)
The distal malleoli of the tibia and the fibula serve as pulleys for the posterior tendons to increase the MA of the respective muscles in performing inversion and eversion actions
Motions of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the toes include flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
Each toe has three interphalangeal joints except for the great toe which has only two.
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