Challenge B, Westerville Ohio
Terms in this set (128)
What is the Law of Identity?
if a statement is true then it is true
What is the Law of Noncontradiction?
the Law of Non-contradiction: A statement cannot be both true and false
What is formal logic?
formal logic deals with the proper modes of reasoning
What is informal logic?
informal logic deals with operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning
What is reasoning?
reasoning is the thought process, logic
How can the two branches of logic be arranged in a chart?
What is induction?
induction is the reasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules
What is deduction?
deduction is the reasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions
What is syllogism?
syllogism is a type of deductive argument in which the conclusion connects one category (or term) with another
What is a definition?
a definition is a statement that is expressed precisely in words
What is a term?
a term is a concept that is expressed precisely in words
What are five types of definitions?
1.Lexical 2.Precising 3.Stupulative 4.Theoretical 5.Persuasive
What are six purposes of definitions?
1.Relationships shown 2.Remove ambiguity 3.Reduce vagueness 4.Increase vocabulary 5.Explain theoretically 6.Influence attitudes
What is logic?
logic is the science and art of reasoning well
What is the Law of Excluded Middle?
the Law of Excluded Middle: Any statement is either true of false
What is ambiguous?
an ambiguous word has more than one definition
What is vague?
a vague word is one whose extent is unclear
What is a lexical definition?
a definition that shows relationships or reduces ambiguity by providing a single meaning of a term
What are the six rules you use when defining by genus and difference?
1.State the essential attributes of the term 2.Not to be circular 3.Not to be too broad or too narrow 4.Not to be unclear or figurative 5.Be stated positively if possible 6.Be of the same part
What is defining by genus and difference?
defining by genus and difference is a term is defined by naming its genus and then adding descriptive words that distinguish the term from every other species under that genus-that is, by providing the difference
What is difference?
the difference distinguishes the term from another term
What is defining by a synonym?
defining by a synonym is giving examples of the term
What is intension?
the intention of a term is the sum of all common attributes denoted by the term
What is extension?
the sum of all the individual objects to which the term applies
What is a persuasive definition?
a definition of a term that influences the listener one way or another toward the term
What is a theoretical definition?
a theoretical definition is like accepting a theory about the term being defined
What is a precising definition?
a definition which seeks to make more precise what was previously vague or fuzzy
What is a stipulative definition?
when a new word is invented, or an existing word is applied in a new way
What is genus?
genus is a term that is more general, broad, or abstract than the original term
What is species?
species is a term that is more specific, narrow, or concrete than the original term
What is genus and species hierarchy?
genus and species hierarchy clearly shows the relationships between the terms
What is mutually exclusive?
mutually exclusive does not overlap species
What is exhaustive?
exhaustive means there are no other types of the term
What is a statement?
a sentence that is true or false
What kind of sentences have no truth value?
question, commands, and nonsense sentences are not statements
What is a self-supporting statement?
it is a statement whose truth value can be determined by the statement itself
What is a tautology?
a tautology is a statement that is always true by logical structure
What are the three categories of self-supporting statements?
1.Self-Reports 2.Statements that are true or false by logical structure 3. Statements that are true or false by definition
What are three ways to collect information for supported statements
1.Authority 2.Experience/Observation 3.Deductive reasoning
What is a supported statement?
a supported statement is a statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from outside itself
How can the different types of statements be put into a chart?
What are the four major relationships?
1.Consistency 2.Implication 3.Logical equivalence 4.Independence
What is an independent statement?
two statements are independent if the truth or falsity of one has no effect on the truth or falsity of the other
What is logical by equivalence?
two statements are logically equivalent if they imply one another
What is an implication statement?
two statements are related by implication if the truth of one requires the truth of the other
What is a consistent statement?
two statements are consistent if they can both be true at the same time
How can the relationships between statements be organized in a chart?
What are the three kinds of disagreements?
1.Real disagreements 2.Apparent disagreements 3.Verbal disagreements
What is a Verbal disagreement?
a verbal disagreement is a misunderstanding due to a differing definitions for one or more words
What is an apparent disagreement?
An apparent disagreement is a difference of opinion or perception
What is a real disagreement?
A real disagreement is an actual inconsistency between two statements: they cannot both be true at the same time
What is quality?
the quality of a statement is the positive or negative nature of its claim about the subject: affirmative (asserts something) or negative (denies something)
What is quantity?
The quantity of a statement is the scope of its claim about the extension of the subject: universal (entire extension) or particular (partial)
What are the four combinations of quantity and quality?
What are the three rules for translating categorical statements into standard categorical form?
1.The statements must begin with words; all, no, or some 2.The verb must be the verb of being; am,is, are, was,were, be, being, been, will be 3.Both the subject and the predicate must be a noun or a noun phrase
What are the four forms of a categorical statement?
1.All S are P
2.No S are P
3.Some S are P
4.Some S are not P
What is a subject?
The subject of a statement is the term being described, or about which something is being said
What is the predicate?
the predicate is the term that describes or asserts something about the subject
What are the verbs of being?
am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, will be
What is a categorical statement?
a categorical statement is a statement that affirms or denies something about a given subject
What are the three ways to change a statement into a standard form?
1.Identity and write down the entire subject 2.Choose the proper "to be" verb 3.Rewrite the entire predicate as a predicate nominative (i.e., a noun)
What is the square of opposition?
the square of opposition is a diagram of the basic relationships between categorical statements with the same subject and predicate
How can the four categorical statements be abbreviated using letters?
A= universal affirmative
E= universal negative
I= particular affirmative
How can you diagram various relationships?
What is a contradiction?
two statements are in contradiction if and only if they always have opposite truth values
What are the five different relationships between categorical statements?
1.Contradiction 2.Contrariety 3.Subcontrariety 4.Subimplication 5.Superimplication
What is a contrariety statement?
two statements are contrary if and only if the cam both be false but cannot be true
What is a sub-contrariety statement?
two statements are subcontraries if and only if both can be true
What is superimplication?
it is the relationship between a universal and particular statement of the same quality, in which the falsity of the particular necessitates the falsity of the universal
What is subimplication?
it is the relationship between a universal and particular statement of the same quality, in which the truth of the universal necessitates the truth of the particular
What does the Square of Opposition look like with all the relationship lines?
What is an argument?
it is a set of statements, one of which appears to be implied or supported by the others
What are the two types of statements in an argument?
What is a conclusion?
it is the point or terminus of the argument, the statement that appears to be implied or supported by the others
What is a premise?
it is that statement that supports or implies the conclusion
What is a syllogism?
it is a deductive argument with one conclusion, two premises, and three terms
What is a categorical syllogism?
it is a syllogism consisting of the three statements in categorical form
What is a major term?
it is the predicate term of the conclusion
What is a minor term?
it is the subject term of the conclusion
What is a middle term?
it is the term that is in both premise but is not in the conclusion
What is a major premise?
the major premise of a syllogism is the premise containing the major term
What is a minor premise?
it contains the minor term
What are the five steps to put syllogisms into standard form?
1.Find the conclusion
2.Find the major term
3.Find the major premise
4.Find the minor premise
5.Write the syllogism out in standard order
What is the standard order for categorical syllogisms?
1.Major premise 2.Minor premise 3.Conclusion
What is a schema?
it is a representation of having statements in standard order with standard abbreviations of its terms
What is the mood of a syllogism?
it is a three-letter description of the types of categorical statements it contains when arranged in standard order
What are the four possible ways to arrange the middle term?
What is a figure?
the figure of a syllogism is a number from 1 to 4 identifying the placement of is middle term
What is the form?
the form of a syllogism is the mood and figure of the syllogism
How is a syllogism valid?
it is valid if and only the premises imply the conclusion
What is sound?
a sound syllogism is valid and has true premises
How can the different types of syllogisms be put into a chart?
What is counterexample?
it is a syllogism of the same form as the original, but with obviously true premises and an obviously false conclusion, in order to show the original to be valid
What is an immediate inference?
it are statements that can be inferred directly from other statements
What are the three main types of equivalent immediate inferences?
What is the converse of a statement?
it switches the subject and predicate and is valid for E and I statements
What is the obverse of a statement?
it changes both quality of the statement and the predicate to its complement, and is valid for all statements
What is the contrapositive of a statement?
it switches the subject and the predicate of the statement and changes both to their complements; it is valid for A and O statements
What is the complement of a term?
it is the set of all terms included in the given term.
What are the two broad types of statements?
What is inclusive?
it is a word, after a relative pronoun or adverb, that refers to a broad range of things or times
What are some inclusive words?
whoever,whatever, wherever, whenever, however, always, and never
What is exclusive?
it are words that set boundaries, referring only to a limited class of things
What are some exclusive words?
only, unless, and exept
What is a enthymeme?
it is an argument in which a statement is unstated and assumed
What does non sequitur mean?
"it does not flow"
What are the 2 basic invalid mixed hypothetical syllogisms?
1.Affirming the consequent
2Denying the antecedent
What is the fallacy of denying the antecedent?
the antecedent of the hypothetical statements is denied in the second premise
What is the fallacy of affirming the consequent?
the second premise affirms the consequent of the hypothetical statement
What is the form of modus tollens?
P)Q If P then Q
~Q Not Q
Therefore ~P Therefore Not P
What is the form of modus ponens?
P)Q If P then Q
Therefore Q Therefore Q
What is a mixed hypothetical syllogism?
it is an argument that uses both hypothetical and categorical statements
What is a consequent?
it is the result of the conclusion, the part after the "then"
What is an antecedent?
the antecedent of a hypothetical statement is the condition, the part following the "if"
What is a pure hypothetical syllogism?
it is an argument that uses only hypothetical statements
What is hypothetical?
it is a statement that affirms an outcome based on a condition
What are the steps to establish truth of a statement?
1.Put the statement into categorical form
2.Find a valid argument form that has that type of statement as a conclusion
3.Place that statement as that conclusion of the selected form of syllogism, and fill in the known terms
4.Find a middle term that makes the premises both true and completes the argument
What is an informal fallacy?
it is a popular but invalid (or unhelpful) form of argument
What is a fallacy of distraction?
it is an argument that confuses the issue by pointing to information that is actually irrelevant to the conclusion
What are the 8 types of fallacies of distraction?
1. Ipse dixit
2. Ad populum
3. Ad baculum
4. Ad hominem
6. Tu quoque
7. Ad ignorantiam
8. Chronological snobbery
What is Ipse dixit?
it is an illegitimate appeal to authority
What is Ad populum?
it is an illegitimate appeal to a majority
What is Ad baculum?
it is an illegitimate appeal to force
What is Ad hominem?
it is a verbal attack on a person rather than his argument
What is Bulverism?
it is attacking a position by pointing out how the arguer came to hold it
What is Tu quoque?
it points to an inconsistency between a person's argument and behavior
What is Ad ignorantiam?
it is an argument from lack of evidence
What is Chronological snobbery?
it is an argument based merely on the passage time