39 terms

Abeka Physics Chapter 25

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drift velocity
term for the average velocity of an electron in the direction of current
resistance
term for the voltage required to produce a unit of current
ohmic
term that describes conductors whose resistance remains constant over a wide range of voltages
nonohmic
term that desribes conductors that fail to display constant resistance over a a wide range of voltages
length
The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its ____.
cross-sectional area
The resistance of a conductor is inversely proportional to its ______ ____.
resistivity
term for the constant of proportionality in the resistance equations
rheostat
term for an adjustable resistor that is used wherever it is desirable to have manual control of the resistance in a circuit
conductor
term for a material that allows relatively free flow of electrons
insulators
term for materials composed of atoms that hold tightly to their electrons and are poorly suited to conduct a current
semiconductors
term for materials with intermediate values of resistivity
superconductive
When a material's resistivity drops to zero, the material becomes ______.
circuit
term for a pathway for current
current source (battery)
term for the part of a circuit that boosts the energy of a charge before sending it out at one terminal
conductors
term for the parts of a circuit that provide the pathway between the battery and the load
load
term for the part of a circuit that uses the charge's energy to do some type of work
Conventional current
_____ ____ treats electricity as a movement of positive charge from a positively charged region to a negatively charged region.
Ohm's law
term for the equation V = IR
voltage
term for the potential added to a positive charge moving through a battery
IR drop
term for the product IR, which specifies the potential drop over a pure resistance R carrying a current I
equivalent resistance
term for a single resistance with the same effect as other resistances in combination
series
If one resistor follows another directly so that current can follow only one pathway through both resistors, they are called ____ resistors.
parallel
If the current follows different pathways through the resistors, they are ____ resistors.
network
term for a circuit that contains any combination of series and parallel resistors
internal resistance
term for resistance within a battery
open circuit
term for a circuit which does not permit current because its resistance is essentially infinite
open-circuit voltage
The voltage listed on a battery is sometimes referred to as its _____ ____.
closed circuit
If R has a finite value other than zero, a circuit is described as a(n) ____ ____.
closed-circuit voltage
term for the voltage between terminals (the difference between the voltage supplied by a battery and the quantity IR)
short circuit
term for conducting wires with no loads and almost zero resistance
multimeter
term for a single device that contains an ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter
galvanometer
term for a meter that measures small amounts of current
ammeter
term for a meter that measures the current through a resistor in the circuit's branch
voltmeter
term for a meter that measures the voltage (IR drop) across a resistor
ohmmeter
term for a meter that measures the resistance of a resistor
junctions
term for the points where the current diverges or converges
principle of charge conservation
the principle that states that charge can neither be created nor destroyed
Kirchhoff's first law
tha law that states that, at any circuit junction, the incoming current must equal the outgoing current
Kirchhoff's second law
the law that states that the sum of all the voltages around a full circuit must equal zero