Vitamins and Minerals
Terms in this set (50)
Most abundant mineral in the human body, found mostly in teeth and bones.
Major energy source (ATP) for every cell in the body, also found in large supplies in bones and teeth.
Major positive ion within intracellular fluid, plays a significant role in neuron/muscle movements.
Main component in protein structure and function, also found as electron carriers in the ETC.
Major anion in extracellular fluid; balances acid-base levels; part of stomach's acid.
Assists in water absorption/retention; plays a significant role in neuron/muscle movements.
Part of many enzymes; required for normal functioning of muscles and nerves.
Main component of hemoglobin and the ETC.
Main component of thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism.
Needed to make hemoglobin; activates several enzymes; assists in bone formation.
Assists in hemoglobin synthesis; part of the ETC; essential for melanin formation.
Central atom in Vitamin B12.
Assist in growth and wound healing; carbon dioxide metabolism, and protein digestion.
Contributes to health of teeth and bones.
Needed for proper immune system functioning; strong antioxidant.
Needed for normal activity of insulin in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Assists in bone and tooth growth; antioxidant; essential part of the retina.
Vitamin A Deficiency
DEFICIENCY: cellular keratinization; night-blindness; skin sores and loss of weight.
Essential for absorption of calcium and phosphorus from foods.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Loss of muscle tone and weakening of bones.
Assists in formation of DNA and RNA; assists in cellular healing; antioxidant.
Vitamin E Deficiency
Abnormal mitochondria; oxidation of some fats
Coenzyme needed for synthesis of blood-clotting factors.
Vitamin K Deficiency
Coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; assists in synthesis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Component of coenzyme FAD; found in in eye structures (lens and cornea) to assist with vision.
Essential component of NAD and NADP; assist in breakdown of triglycerides.
Coenzyme for amino acid metabolism; assists in production of antibodies.
Coenzyme necessary for red blood cell formation; required in formation of acetylcholine.
Needed in Krebs Cycle for glucose formation; assists in cholesterol formation.
Component needed for synthesis of DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases, red, and white blood cells.
Essential coenzyme for conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetic acid and synthesis of fatty acids.
Promotes protein synthesis; antioxidant; assists in healing of cellular damage.
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency
Anemia; loose teeth; poor wound healing; retarded growth; swollen gums.
Poor memory; personality and/or mood changes.
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