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129 terms

Respiratory System

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alveol/o
alveolus ( air sac)
bronch/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchi/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o
carbon dioxide
carb/o
carbon dioxide
laryng/o
larynx ( voice box)
lob/o
lobe (a portion)
nas/o
nose
rhin/o
nose
or/o
mouth
ox/o
oxygen
palat/o
palate
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
phren/o
diaphragm (also mind)
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o
air or lung
pneumon/o
air or lung
pulmon/o
lung
sinus/o
sinus (cavity)
spir/o
breathing
thorac/o
chest
pector/o
chest
steth/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsil (almond)
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
uvul/o
uvula
-pnea
breathing
sinuses
air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palate
partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion-also called palatine tonsils
adeniod
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose- also called pharyngeal tonsil
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis
lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
lobes
subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
mediastinum
partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain the right and left lung) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
cilia
hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
parenchyma
functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthopnea
ability to breathe only in an upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
crackles/ rales
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli- occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
wheezes/ rhonchi
high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway- occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
caseous necrosis
degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
dysphonia
hoarseness
epistaxis
nosebleed
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood origination in the lungs
hypercapnia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypercarbia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
cystic fibrosis
inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and lung tissue damage
nasal polyposis
presence of numerous polyps in the nose
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
empyema
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
pleuritis/pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
pneumoconiosis
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos, or silicone
pneumonia
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
pneumocystis pneumonia
pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism- a common opportunictic infection sen in those with postive human immunodeficiency
pulmonary embolism (PE)
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions
upper respiratory infectino (URI)
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
arterial blood gases (ABGs)
analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
pH
a measure of blood acidity or alkalinity
PaO2
partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood
PaCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
endoscopy
examination of a body cavity with a flexible endoscope to examine within for diagnostic or treatment purposes
bronchoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope to examine the airways
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
lung biopsy (Bx)
removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathological examination
lung scan
two-part nuclear scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of perfusion or ventilation, commonly called a V/Q scan Ventilation scan-made as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airway Perfunsion scan- made after radioactive material is injuected into the blood and circulates to the lungs
magnetic resonance image (MRI)
nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
polysomnography (PSG)
recording of various aspects of sleep for diagnosis of sleep disorders
auscultation
to listen; physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
percussion
physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest
pulmonary function testing (PFT)
direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
spirometry
portion of pulmonary functions testing that is a direct measurment of lung volume and capacity
tidal volume (TV or Vt)
amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
vital capacity (VC)
amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
peak flow (PF) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air aftera maximal inspiration
pulse oximetry
nonivasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia
radiology
x-ray imaging
chest x-ray (CXR)
x-ray image of the chest to visualize the lungs
computed tomography (CT)
computed x-ray imaging of the head is used to visualize the stuctures of the nose and sinuses; CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung
pulmonary angiography
x-ray of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of contrast material
adeniodectomy
excision of the adenoids
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of a lung
nasal polypectomy
removal of a nasal polyp
pneumonectomy
removal of an entire lung
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
thoracoscopy
endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube
thoracotomy
incision into the chest
tonsillectomy
excision of the palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A)
excision of the tonsils and adenoids
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea, most often to insert a tube
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
method of artificial respiration and closed-chest massage used to restore breathing and cardiac output after cardiac arrest
continuous postive airway pressure (CPAP)
device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages, commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
endotracheal intubation
passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
incentive spirometry
common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and repeatedly sustain an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
mechanical ventilation
mechanical method performed by a respiratory therapist to provide assisted breathing using a ventilator
antibiotic
drug that kills or inhibits the growth of micoorganisms
anticoagulant
drug that dissolves, or prevent the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels
antihistamine
drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
histamine
compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reactions, inflammation,etc., causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, dilaton of blood vessels
bronchodilator
drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
expectorant
drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing