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US History Hoarty exam Q2
Terms in this set (215)
-the world would be controlled by the strongest and fittest nations.
-Stronger nations dominating weak ones was simply a part of natural law.
-If the U.S. was to survive the competition of modern states, it too would have to become an imperial power.
-One of the leading causes of imperialism (especially the Panama Canal) and racism in the US
what: African-Americans who leave the south and move to states like Kansas for agricultural/ economic opportunity (to
escape from Jim Crow laws
why: As migrant population increased in number and the American bison population was decimated,
competition for land and resources
in the West among white settlers, American Indians, and Mexican Americans led to an
increase in violent conflict
Three C's of Roosevelt's Square Deal
conservation of natural resources,
control of corporations,
a method of mining by which water is sprayed at a very high pressure against a hill or mountain, washing away large quantities of dirt, gravel, and rock and exposing the minerals beneath the surface. Used to find gold.
last peg put into the first railroad that would connect East and West America. A huge event that meny rich (white) men went to (it was built mostly by immigrants)
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
-pressured the U.S. gov't to go to war against Spain to increase U.S. influence in Cuba.
-increases sympathy for Cuba
Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
led Sioux warriors into battle and
the Seventh Cavalry (George A.
and his army)
why: the first battle the
American Indians won
against the white men
White Man's Burden
A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions the U.S. took. Americans felt that it was their duty to "civilize" other countries
progressive reforms at the STATE level?
B - ballot
I - initiative
R - referendum
R - recall
D - direct primary
What territories did the U.S. gain as a result of the Spanish-American War?
Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines became U.S. territories
what: an American Indian
. They thought that if they preformed this dance, the white men would disappear and all their land would be returned to them (
their lives would return to normal
why: this display of culture
led to the Battle of Wounded Knee
and the settlers began to successfully urge the government to make such
displays of Indian culture illegal
How did the U.S. get Hawaii?
-America was interested in Hawaii because of its sugar market and wanted to eliminate tariffs on it
-Queen Liliuokalani wanted nothing to do with the Americans and wished for her people to run the islands
-Angry, the rich planters overthrew the queen
-Clevland attempted to bring her back to power but it did not work
Led to the loss of Clevland's popularity
Turner argued the closing of the frontier had ended an era in American history. He used the census report of 1890 to explain that settlement of the frontier had created the American character and spurred American development. His essay illustrates the psychological power of the frontier in that, with its passing, Americans began to realize that revitalized opportunities were also vanishing.
Battle of Wounded Knee (1890)
the Seventh Cavalry open fired on a large group of Indians, making it the last "battle" between U.S. troops and American Indians
Sitting Bull was shot
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
-resulted in the US gaining Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines through the Treaty of Paris
what: the act of erasing one culture by merging it with another more popular culture (sometimes forcefully). In the case of the American Indians, they had to learn English, Christianity, and
give up all of their native customs/ religions
why: the forced assimilation of the Indians
led to the Dawes Act being formed
Dawes Severalty Act
what: American Indian families were given 160 acres of land if they severed themselves from their former tribe. If they "behaved like good white settlers", they would be granted citizenship in 25 years
why: it accelerated the destruction of American Indian culture.
did america commit to isolationism?
-hosted a naval conference aimed to reduce the military strength of all nations
-loaned European nations billions of dollars to help rebuild after WWI
-signed Kellogg-Briand Pact (international peace pact)
-The U.S. now had to protect Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines, and merchant ships, so Roosevelt built a canal that would cut across Panama as a short cut between Atlantic and Pacific
-Panama was fighting to get independence from Columbia at the time, so Roosevelt said he would recognize them as independent if they did this
-The Panama Canal angered many Latin Americans and improved international trade for the US
How did the US get Cuba?
-Cuba was fighting to get independence from the Spanish, so the US helped them, starting the Spanish-American War
-Some Americans wanted to seize Cuba (as a European power would) and others wanted to liberate the country
-This split led to the passing of the Platt Amendment. Cuba would be technically independent but they could not sign treaties with other countries, they had to give up their coast to the US for naval bases, and the US could intervene with Cuban political affairs whenever it wanted
Great White Fleet
16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power
Indian Boarding Schools
Children were forced into American boarding schools where they could not show any of their culture and learned how to be "proper American children".
what were some conflicts that took place during the 1920s?
Wet vs dry
Rural vs urban
Tradition vs modern
Immigrant vs nativist
who were the three presidents of the 1920s and what were their economic goals?
-"return to nomalcy"
-lowering taxes/ raising wages
-advocating for trusts
-rich americans were the priority, especially during the depression
what: used to fence in land used for cattle grazing on the Great Plains,
as a challenge to the "long drive"
why: barbed wire fences were too numerous to be cut down by cowboys, eventually leading to the
end of the open frontier
A group of anti-imperialists that advocated for isolationism.
-they thought the annexation of the Philippines was unconstitutional and going against the principles on which the US was founded
Homestead Act (1862)
what: the government gave 160 acres of land to any white settler who moved to the West, as long as they farmed on that land.
why: this act led to lots of
expansion and cultivation
, as well as
conflict with the Native Americans
(the settlers were taking their land, and since the Indians were in the way, they were constantly being
moved to small reservations of land
Alfred Thayer Mahan
US Admiral who wrote a book called The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
-he encouraged the US to strengthen its naval power to become a world power.
what: a policy that encourages
fear of foreigners
and favors native-born people over foreigners
why: it was the
for the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) and the assimilation of the Native Americans
extreme patriotism, especially in the form of aggressive or warlike foreign policy.
what: a railroad that stretched across the country and it was built for the sake of increased trade and settlements
why: it promoted
and centers of commercial activity
"cross of gold" speech
An address given by Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee during the national convention of the Democratic party, it criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver. His beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
what: suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years with a few rare job opportunities (
"they're taking our jobs!"
exemplified U.S. nativism
and the levels of Chinese immigration drops after the law is passed
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
-the immediate cause of the SPAM war
-an American ship off the coast of Cuba blew up (malfunction), killing 260
-American blamed the explosion on Spain
-yellow journalism stirred anti-Spanish sentiment
Ida B. Wells
who: a black journalist and
responded to the violence
of lynching by writing about them in her newspaper and
speaking in Europe
, which encouraged the British and some Northerners to join the fight
9th and 10th Negro Cavalries
African-American army units that played pivotal roles in the Spanish-American war
Jim Crow Laws
what: laws that allowed
of whites and blacks
why: led to the
of black people
What is disenfranchisement?
taking away the right to vote
Open Door Policy
-all the huge European powers got to trade with China through "spheres of influence", and America wanted in on this
-The Open Door Policy said that America should also be able to trade with China (it also said some things about respecting China's rights)
-It did not gain international acceptance
-European spheres of influence led to the Boxer Rebellion
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
what: the Supreme Court case that ruled
"separate but equal"
why: after this court case,
Jim Crow laws were legal and popularized
, even though the separate facilities were far from equal
Brooker T. Washington
who: a black activist who wanted to
"cement the friendship of the races"
why: he was willing to
as long as black people were given
education, jobs, and economic opportunity
-Chinese rebellion that opposed the foreign influence
-They sieged Beijing
-Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and the U.S. all contributed to stopping the rebellion
W.E.B. Du Bois
who: a black activist who
prioritized immediate social and economic opportunity
for black people
why: opposed Washington's "accommodation" which
led to the Niagara movement
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain.
-the US promised him that the Philippines would gain independence once the SPAM war was won, so he helped the US by giving them men
-However, once the war was done, the US annexed the Philippines anyway and Aguinaldo revolted
what were some cons of an American Indian tribe?
lack of unity
(led to their defeat)
-sexist culture (men fight while women farm)
-competitive warriors (warriors wasted resources on fights in order to demonstrate bravery)
-One of the policies listed in Roosevelt's "Big Stick Diplomacy"
-Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South and Central America by using military force
War with Filipino rebels after the acquisition of the Philippines;
-High Filipino casualties
-Strategy of ruthless war and concessions eventually crushed the revolt; American actions in the Philippines were virtually indistinguishable from Spain's actions in Cuba (concentration camps)
What was the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864?
The Indians had very little food, so they rose up to reclaim their old hunting grounds. Later that year, the Cheyenne chief (Black Kettle) ordered a retreat, believing there was no need for bloodshed. John Chivington took advantage of Black Kettle's mercy and
attacked the unsuspecting camp, killing 200
The assassination of Franz Ferdinand
-a Serbian nationalist (a member of the Black Hand group) killed the archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
-Austria sent investigators to Serbia to see who committed the murder. If Serbia did not let them do this, Austria would declare war
-Serbia was allied with Russia and Austria was allied with Germany (Germany also declared war on Serbia and France in support of Austria). Both Russia and Germany prepared for war
-The Schlieffen Plan was Germany's attack on France at the beginning of WWI. The German forces had to cut through Belgium to get there.
-Germany wanted to knock out France early so they could focus all their forces on Russia, which was much more powerful
-Great Britain thought its coastline was jeopardized in this attack, so they declared war on Britain as well
Who were the Allied Powers?
Great Britain, France, Russia (later, Japan, Italy, and America)
Who were the Central Powers?
Germany, Austria-Hungary (later, the Ottoman Empire)
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
-gave US control over Cuban treaties and land(naval bases)
people who wanted only the gold standard- thought that silver is a western ploy that would decrease US prosperity and will lower wages
Big Stick Diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Helen Hunt Jackson
who: wrote "A Century of Dishonor" about all the violence the Indians were being subjected to
why: she believed Native Americans needed to assimilate into Western culture
"for their own good"
Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
what was lynching?
of black people without a trial. Their purpose was to
threaten and intimidate
other African Americans to "stay in their place"
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
What was the Long Drive?
Cowboys drove herds through the plains until they reached a railroad terminal (they
from farmers in order to
sell them for beef
, which was in high demand and expensive)
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
What was the Comestock Lode?
Gold and silver was rumored to be in Nevada, which led to a large population influx (this increased population eventually made Nevada its own state)
What was Nez Perce?
northwestern group of Indians
led by Chief Joseph, who helped the white settlers previously. They gave up a chunk of their land that was in the way of expansion for reservations in Oregon and Idaho. They were
forced to give up more land
once gold was found. The government wanted to dissolve this tribe, which led to
. After winning several battles before
fleeing to Canada
. They were
infected with malaria
when they were shipped south to Kansas, and after 30% of the tribe had died, the
government gave them back some of their reservations
, just not their original homeland.
Who worked on the transcontinental railroad?
Chinese and Irish immigrants
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Poor Mexican-American ranchers (Mexicanos) resisted the fencing in of lands in places such as New Mexico and Las Vegas as large landowners sought to take control of open lands, some of which remained public. In response to federal troops protecting cattle fences, Mexican-American ranchers began running for office and controlled the balance of power between both the Republican and Democratic parties.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
What was the Oklahoma Land Rush?
U.S. made available to settlers vast stretches of land formerly occupied by the Creeks and Seminoles in the district of Oklahoma
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
The Crisis is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. It was founded in 1910 by W. E. B. Du Bois, Oswald Garrison Villard, J. Max Barber, Charles Edward Russell, Kelly Miller, William Stanley Braithwaite, and Mary Dunlop Maclean.
What was the 1890 Census?
The 1890 census revealed that for the first time in U.S. history, a frontier line was no longer discernible. (kick starts the U.S.'s desire for more territory). All unsettled areas were now broken by isolated bodies of settlement. Yet, more millions of acres were taken up after 1890 than between 1862 and 1890. Once the frontier was gone, farmers could not move west in significant numbers. They had to stay and fight to improve their situation by organizing for political purposes.
British passanger ship that was torpedoed by a German U-boat in 1915; 1200 people died and 128 Americans died.
Crop lien system
"Crop lien" system: basis of the commercialization of southern agriculture
a. A planter or merchant extended a line of credit (at exorbitant interest rates) to a struggling farmer.
• It was virtually impossible for farmers to get out of debt.
•Resulted in many poor white and black farmers becoming landless tenant farmers or sharecroppers.
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S. and proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico.
Reasons for US Imperialism at the end of the 19th century
- desire to become a world power/ strengthen the military
- thirst for new markets/ trading
- belief in cultural superiority/ desire to "civilize" other countries with Christianity, English etc
underlying (root) causes of war in EUROPE
M - militarism
A - alliances
I - imperialism
N - nationalism
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops. (usually led to debt)
John J. Pershing
US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him
United Daughters of the Confederacy
women of the "first families" of the confederacy who decorated confederate graves, funded confederate monuments, and
romanticized the era of slavery!
To ensure its control, each southern state passed legislation taking voting rights away from blacks (e.g., literacy tests, poll taxes, "grandfather clauses").
American Expeditionary Force
About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing. Included the regular army, the National Guard, and the new larger force of volunteers and draftees and they served as individuals
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
Crude structure built of thick blocks of grass and dirt.
-Journalists who attempted to expose the evils of society rather than covering them up.
-Led to the creation of informative magazines that caused people to care more about social issues like the working conditions of factories and the misery of the New York slums
-people became more interested in "realism" and journalism became nationally important
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
-developed the light bulb, allowing electricity to improve the industry (
electricity became a cornerstone of the industrial revolution
-Cities became illuminated and electric street cars revolutionized urban living
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
a muckraker who wrote Shame of the Cities which detailed the corrupt alliances between big businesses and government
a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. Subscribing to the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial securities to many citizens for the first time.
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
controlling every aspect of the production process
: improve efficiency, make supplies more reliable, lowing costs (middleman fees), controlling the quality
middle class culture
increased influence over American life, leisure arose, targeted by new merchandising techniques, flocked to chain and department stores, women rose in influence.
information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
Ida M. Tarbell
-a muckraker who published a devastating exposé on the Standard Oil Co. (Rockefeller
-Rockefeller's ruthless tactics to crush competition (including her father's oil business) were carefully detailed.
-Her writing caused to be Standard Oil broken up (it was seen as a "bad trust")
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
buying out competitors
to monopolize a given market
Espionage and Sedition Acts
two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in WWI
-a muckraker who wrote The Jungle which depicted the unsanitary working conditions in meatpacking plants
-His book inspired the Meat Inspection Act (ensured sanitary conditions) and the Pure Food and Drug Act (proper labeling)
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
-one of the three quintessential
"captains of industry"
-Monopolized the oil industry with
to bypass the railroad industry
(aka "monopoly"- one person/ company having complete power over one industry) to control his competition
Jacob A. Riis
-a photojournalist who published How The Other Half Lives, a collection of photographs that depicted the crowded, dirty, miserable life of the New York slums
-Heavily influenced progressives such as Theodore Roosevelt (public interest)
Schneck v. US
established the 'clear and present danger' test
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
Pullman Strike (1894)
•Pullman Co. was hit hard by the depression and cut wages by 1/3 yet maintained rent prices in the company town.
•Attorney General Richard Olney sent in federal troops stating strikers were interfering with the transit of U.S. mail.
• President Cleveland: "If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered."
• Violence spread to several states, costing 34 lives.
•The strike was crushed and the American Railway Union was destroyed.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Eugene V. Debs helped organize the American Railway Union of about 150,000 rail workers.
• Workers went on strike while overturning some Pullman cars.
•Railway traffic from Chicago to the Pacific Coast was paralyzed.
Invented the Alternating Current (AC current) for electricity.
developed a safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Settlement House Movement
-Creation of places that offered social services to urban poor - often food, shelter, and basic higher education - Hull House was most famous
-Became a center of women's activism and social reform
-a college-educated woman with a passion for volunteer work and activism (especially if it concerned blacks or the poor)
-She created Hull House, which started the settlement house movement
-Co-founder of the NAACP
Payment for war damages
-investigated/ reported on child labor while living at Hull House
-Led the National Consumers League, which boycotted goods made by children or people working in unsanitary conditions
War Guilt Clause
in treaty of Versailles; declared germany and austria responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers
A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Complete control of a product or business by one person or group
Henry Cabot Lodge
-Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
-believed in covenant X which basically meant that being involved with other countries would lead to America losing its sense of self
how did US and Britain/ France change after the war?
-believed that the league would make the correct decisions to avoid war
-did not want to punish Germany because it would lead to resentment and ecological problems for them
-lost more soldiers/ resources so they wanted to punish Germany more harshly
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
•Several railroads were
cutting workers' wages
First nationwide strike
e* (it paralyzed railroad companies)
•The president ordered the federal troops to get involved to stop the riot (this
set the precedent for future federal intervention
t* for the Greenback-Labor party and other workingmen's parties
What were the major causes of imperialistic policies?
economic, exploratory, ethnocentric, political, and religious motives
Women's Christian Temperance Union
A women's union led by Carrie A. Nation that fought for the prohibition of alcohol
Pressure from this organization (as well as the Anti-Saloon League) lead to the passing of the 18th amendment
What were the major consequences of newly acquired territory?
assimilated conquered peoples by military force
the unlimited production of silver coins (would help get farmers out of debt)
-a legislative act introduced by Robert LaFollette
-the people got to choose the candidate that would run for office instead of big buissneses
In what ways and to what extent did U.S. imperialistic policies impact Latin America and the Pacific region?
unofficially regarded parts of Latin America and the Pacific region as within its sphere of influence
What were the root causes of World War 1?
production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly lines (quick and cheap)
What were the major reasons the U.S entered WW1?
-the sinking of the Lusitania (German u-boats)
-Zimmerman note (Germany asking Mexico to ally with them and fight America)
-yellow journalism (anti-German sentiment)
-a legislative act introduced by Robert LaFollette
-allowed citizens to introduce a bill
-a legislative act introduced by Robert LaFollette
-a potential law is presented to the voters and they have the ability to decide weather it gets passed or not
Sherman Antitrust Act
-Passed in response to public demands for curbing the excess power of trusts (
first federal action against monopolies
-Provision: Forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distinction between "good" trusts and "bad" trusts
as it was not enforced
-It was important because it
showed that the public was shifting from laissez-faire to government protection and regulation!
Triangle Shirt Waist Factory Fire
-employers kept the doors to this factory
to keep the laborers working
-a fire broke out on the top floor and
no one could escape
, leading to the deaths of 150 Jewish and Italian women workers
-It was important because it
brought attention to the terrible working conditions
of factories (this attention
lead to the creation of the Muckrakers
What were the goals of political leaders at the Paris Peace Conference?
to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers
What were the consequences of the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany was no longer the second most economically advanced nation in the world. The immediate economic consequences of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were a significant concern and added to Germany's humiliation
-a legislative act introduced by Robert LaFollette
-The citizens have the power to vote someone out of office if necessary. This happened very rarely
Root causes of war in EUROPE
Clayton Antitrust Act
-1914 law that
strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act
-Allowed the Sherman Antitrust Act to be
used against labor unions
(they were restraining trade)
how did the US change from WWI
Espionage and sedition acts
Australian (secret) Ballot
-Voting is done secretly
-This counteracted bribery committed by political machines ("vote for our candidate or we'll punish you") because no one knows whom you voted for
-On the downside, many illiterate voters were disenfranchised (could not mark their ballots)
Reasons for imperialism
-spread Christianity/ "civilized" ideals
-Expansion/ building a navy
"survival of the fittest"
started this idea
justified the inequities of society
between whites and blacks
-God chose winners and losers in society (whites were chosen by God to be rich, ergo they are superior)
causes of the SPAM war
-Yellow journalism (sympathy for Cuba)
-Letter from the Spanish minister (De Lome letter)
-sugar plantations/ trading with Cuba
how did the US change domestically after WWI?
-new jobs for women
-total war tactics
-14 points/ league of nations
what were total war tactics?
Telling companies what to make
Espionage + sedition acts
Committee on public info
-Schneck vs US
what were the city-wide progressive reforms?
city manager and city commissioner
People are no longer appointed just because they are connected (hiring experts)
what were the state-wide progressive reforms
what were the federal progressive reforms?
the amendments (16, 17, 18, 19)
graduated income tax
"Gospel of Wealth"
-Some business leaders argued that the wealthy had a
moral obligation to help the less fortunate and improve society
, as articulated in the idea known as the Gospel of Wealth
-And they made
that enhanced educational opportunities and urban environments.
Led to the creation of many libraries, hospitals, parks, concert halls etc.
direct election of senators
-meant to counter senate corruption and give more power to the people
Knights of Labor
-Sought to include all workers in "one big union" including blacks and women.
-They used bargaining, strikes (mostly
against railroads like Union Pacific and Missouri Pacific
which sometimes worked and sometimes did not), and sponsored cooperatives to get what they wanted
They succeeded in gaining an 8-hour work day and a graduated income tax
What were the goals of the Knights of Labor?
- 8 hour work day
- Workers owned shares in the company
- Abolishing child labor/ workplace discrimination
-Graduated income tax
-Public ownership of railroads
- Equal pay
- Safety codes
Robert La Follette
-America's first progressive governor
-Established a progressive government by taking down lumber and railroad trusts
-Advocated for worker's safety
-He introduced the initiative, referendum, and recall
Haymarket Square Riot
May 4, 1886
*Large rally in Haymarket Square in Chicago shortly after striking began at McCormick Harvesting Machine Co. (work days were too long)
Police were attempting to disperse the crowd then a
*Eleven were killed and over 100 were injured
*Eight anarchists were put on trial and four were executed
Incident was used to discredit the Knights of Labor
-Founded by Ida B. Wells, W.E.B Du Bois, Jane Addams, and other activists
-Was created right after the Springfield Race Riots (two innocent black men were lynched by white supremacists)
-Fought against segregation and disfranchisement
-Marked the beginning of the civil rights movement
-The formation of this organisation inspired others to fight for racial change like the National Urban League
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
-He only wanted labor to win its fair share; better wages and hours, and improved working conditions ("bread and butter" issues).
walk-outs and boycotts
-Happened at Carnegie's steel plant when he wanted to get rid of all the old workers (
refused to leave the plant
because they did not want to lose their jobs
erupted between the guards and the workers
The AFL was effectively broken and demonstrated a strong employer could break a union if it hired a private police force and gained gov't and court protection
National American Woman Suffrage Association
-Led by Susan B. Anthony and Carrie Chapman Catt
-campaigned door-to-door, rallied, and pressed for laws
-Led to women's suffrage (mostly in the West)
Carrie Chapman Catt
-Co-leader of NAWSA
-Most effective women's suffrage activist
-She wanted women to finally give up household duties and be equal to men in the eyes of the law
-Her "Winning Plan" was to get women's sufferage legal in 36 states (she needed 38 to get the amendment ratified). Women able to vote in those states would pressure the last two (which would be part of the south) to pass it as well
-With much difficulty, her plan succeeded and the 19th amendment was passed
-Popularized steel rails; he replaced the old iron tracks of the New York Central Railroad.
•Steel was safer and more economical since it could carry a heavier load.
-His monopolistic practices and considerable political influence led critics to call him a "robber baron."
National Women's Party
This union mocked Wilson, staged hunger strikes, and acted as "silent sentinels" outside the White House (they held signs that called Wilson a hypocrite)
-head of the National Women's Party
-She put forth The Equal Rights Amendment which would have given women complete equality to men, but it was never passed
-A businessman that got while taking advantage of others like the poor or smaller businesses
-One way they would do this was to pay
drive out competitors by lowering prices
-Once they controlled the entire industry, they
hiked up the prices crazy high
-*They were responsible for keeping poor people from earning money due to their extremely high prices. The term "robber baron" also shows the public's growing contempt for the wealthy
-McKinley's former VP who became the youngest president
-Extroverted and brash
-Square Deal: focused on regulating big businesses and protecting workers
-Hepburn Act: gave the government control over the shipping rates of railroads
-Meat Inspection Act: ensured sanitary meat production
-Pure Food and Drug Act: ensured that foods had proper packaging
-Arbitration: process in which a neutral outside third party resolves a government dispute
-U.S. Forest Service: protect forest/ national parks from excessive development
Interstate Commerce Act
Prohibited rebates and pools; required railroads to publish their rates openly
-It was the
large-scale legislation passed by the federal government to
in the interest of society
Created the Interstate Commerce Commission
to enforce and administer the act
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
-invented by Alexander Graham Bell
-allowed people (and more importantly businesses) to connect and form communities over long distances
-gave women more jobs (operators)
-A Scottish immigrant who went on to take over America's
-One of the three quintessential "captains of industry" (Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan)
-invented "vertical integration"
-first to use the
(turned iron into steel which led to the invention of skyscrapers)
-Created the saying "Gospel of Wealth" (philanthropy)
Roosevelt's fight for the "three C's"
Led to the creation of the Department of Commerce and Labor, The Bureau of Corporations, the Newlands Reclamation Act
-Rockefeller's very large oil company
Standard Oil produced a quality product at a cheap price that fueled important economies home and abroad
(large scale production/distribution)
the first trust!
Northern Securities Company
-a company owned by J.P. Morgan that achieved a monopoly on railroads
-Roosevelt broke it up, which gave him the nickname "trustbuster"
-Owned a Wall Street banking house which financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks.
-In 1901, he launched the enlarged United States Steel Corporation.
a. It was a combination of Carnegie's holdings and stocks
b. Corporation capitalized at $1.4 billion making it
America's first billion-dollar corporation
-"Interlocking directorates" were organized by J. P. Morgan
-He sought to consolidate rival enterprises and ensure future harmony by placing officers of his own banking syndicate on their various boards of directors.
-Government attempts to break up big trusts (railroads, meat, sugar...)
-This proved to the American public that Roosevelt was serious about fighting for the people and not for the businesses
-Taft was more serious about it (he broke up 90 different companies during his presidency)
Bull Moose Party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912.
The Republican party split in two during this election: the normal Republican party (Taft) and the "Bull Moose"/ Progressive Republican Party (Roosevelt)
-The arrogant, new super-rich class that emerged out of the industrial revolution
-The "old rich" (people who had inherited their money) resented them because they flaunted their wealth
-High ranking families like the Roosevelts were losing power int he face of the "new rich"
Economic liberty and community involvement was being overshadowed
by monopoly and political machines
-Thanks to the new rich, the
overall American standard of living rose, most goods were cheaper, and lots of people were getting jobs (not good one though)
President Wilson's program to break up trusts and restore American economic competition
Election of 1896
most important election since Lincoln was elected
, was nominated by the Republicans (appealed to middle-class voters)
-William Jennings Bryan, Democratic nominee. (focused on "free silver"
-McKinley defeated Bryan
Diminished voter participation occurred as the Republican party was seen as the party of the rich.
d. Beginning of the "4th party system" -- large population centers determined elections; farmers were discouraged and less politically active in subsequent elections. (they were no longer the majority of voters)
African Americans' rights were abandoned
by Republicans as the African American vote in the South was not important in the 1896 election.
Populism failed as a third-party
because but it had a political influence for 25 years after its defeat in the 1896 election.
Election of 1912 candidates
-Democrat: Woodrow Wilson (anti-trust, tariff regulations)
-Bull Moose: Theodore Roosevelt (liberal agenda, cultured and middle-class people)
it set the liberal agenda for the next 50 years.
-Republican: Taft (tariff)
-Socialist: Eugene Debs (supported by the Industrial Workers of the World, gov't ownership of railroads and utilities, better housing, factory inspections, and recreational facilities for all Americans.)
Results of the 1912 election
TRoosevelt (Bull Moose party) and Taft (didn't campaign; dominated by the "Old Guard") split the Republican voters. The democrats united behind Wilson to get a landslide victory in the Electoral College, even though he got only 42% of the popular vote. Debs got nearly a million votes (represented the height of the socialist movement)
The Republican platform supported the gold standard but advocated bimetallism (
world-wide gold-silver standard
). The proposal was really a sham as all other leading nations would have to agree and they certainly wouldn't.
-the growth of the logging industry prompted conservationism
-National parks were created
-"Wise use policy": National parks were not to be used for logging, grazing, or any over type of urbanization
-Taft also help with conservationism with the Bureau of Mines (controlled mineral resources and mining in national parks)
-Ballinger-Pinchot controversy: Secretary of the Interior Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to development—but refused Gifford Pinchot's demands to reduce mining. When Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination, the public was furious (Taft and TR began to split)
discovery of precious metals causes town to pop up overnight; mostly young male miners, few women; abandoned when metal was gone (most of the time)
William Howard Taft
-More mellow and quiet than TR
-Major trustbuster (challenged Morgan's steel company)
-Promised to deal with the tariffs, but when he approved them (Payne-Aldrich bill), he lost the public's trust
-National Wildlife Refuge System
A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds for free, done in an attempt to
Patrons of Husbandry
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, The Grange, provided farmers with social and educational activities (picnics, music, lectures)
a. The initial purpose of the Grange was to help reduce the isolation many farmers felt in sparsely-populated areas.
b. By 1875, the Grange had about 800,000 members, mostly in the Midwest and South.
Eventually, the Grange established cooperatives for both consumers and producers. (
pooling money in order to afford machinery and supplies
a. Grain elevators (to store excess grain), dairies to store and process products, cooperative stores to purchase supplies (such as seed, plows, fertilizer, etc.)
b. Politically, the Grange sought to end monopolistic railroad practices that hurt farmers with high freight rates.
c. Its attempt to manufacture harvesting machinery ultimately failed.
consumerism and advertising
-Clayton Anti-Trust Act (stronger than the Sherman-Anti Trust Act): Protected labor unions from anti-trust regulation
-Banned child labor
-Federal Reserve Act: set up a system of federal banks and gave the government the power to control the money supply (lowered the risk of depressions because national banks were split up into 12 regional banks)
-Federal Trade Commission Act: end unfair trade practices—unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling of products, and bribery
-Underwood Tariff Bill: lowers tariff prices
-18th and 19th amendments
Granger Laws sought gov't control over the big business to benefit the people. (many were overturned)
• Regulated railroad rates and storage fees charged by railroads and operators of warehouses and grain elevators.
b. Munn vs. Illinois (1877): The Supreme Court ruled that
private property was subject to gov't regulation when the property was devoted to the public interest.
What were some problems that farmers faced?
-crop prices were declining
-suppliers charged high interest
-unpredictable market (demand was always fluctuating)
Prohibition of alcohol
The People's Party (The Populist Party)
they advocated for crop storage, low-interest federal loans, inflation regulation, and lower railroad shipping prices
-They had decent political influence (elected senators, governors, and congresspeople)
-in 1893, the worst economic depression in American history happens.
More people wanted to create silver coins in order to get out of debt
This party is an example of how farmers-- low-income people and not wealthy people-- can make a difference in society. It also shows how popular and industrialized farming was at that time
What demands did the Populist Party make in Omaha in 1892?
-a permanent union of the working class
-better distribution of wealth for the workers
-government ownership of railroads instead of crazy-rich businessmen
-government ownership of communication systems
-fair distribution of currency
-you have to use land in order to own it
Nativists viewed eastern and southern Europeans as culturally and religiously exotic and often treated them badly.
b. Alarmed at the prospect of a America becoming a mixture of "inferior" southern European blood
c. Hated immigrants' willingness to work for "starvation" wages
d. Concerned over "dangers" foreign ideas (e.g. socialism, communism and anarchism)
American Protective Association (APA) formed in 1887
• Urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates for office (the religion of many immigrants)
Business interests favored increased immigration because they
provided cheap labor and served as "scabs" for strike-breaking.
2. The influence of big business in politics meant that Congress would not pass any significant immigration laws regarding Europeans until the 1920s
-The U.S. population in 1900 doubled to about 80 million since 1870 (105 million by 1920)
-Streetcar suburbs emerged as middle-class and some upper-class people moved further away from city centers where they worked.
-The largest cities in
America became a megalopolis divided into distinctly different districts
for business, industry, and residences; segregated by race, ethnicity, and social class.
-Commercial districts mushroomed, with department stores emerging.
-Cities gave women career opportunities
-"Dumbbell" tenements developed in 1879; 7 or 8 stories high with little ventilation while families were crammed into each floor
-Cites were unsanitary and full of crime, so these tenements were actually an improvement
Cities saw the rise of political machines where one party dominated through a spoils system and used the political system to make money for party leaders—much of it was done unethically and illegally.
• Patronage: wealthy interests paid off politicians in order to profit from municipal and state projects.
The Tammany Hall political machine in New York City was the largest and most notorious.
Boss Tweed (William Marcy Tweed) was the most notorious of all the corrupt political bosses.
• Tweed led the "Tweed Ring" that used bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to gain perhaps $200 million at the expense of New York City.
Up to the 1840s, most were Anglo-Saxon from Britain and western Europe (Germany and Scandinavia)
• Most were literate and easily adapted to American society.
Germans were seen as sturdy, hardworking, serious people.
Most came from eastern and southern Europe (Italians, Jews, Poles, Greeks, Hungarians, Croat/Slovenian, Slovaks, Czechs, and Bulgarian/Serbian/ Montenegrin). They were seen as menaces who would never be able to assimilate (Irish were perceived as dirty, drunk, immoral, Catholic, violent)
-"New Immigrants" came to live in enclaves in NY and Chicago where their numbers were actually larger than their European cities.
Many were Orthodox Christians or Jewish (from Eastern Europe)
Most came from countries with little democracy.
Struggled to maintain culture (sometimes rejected it)
How did the government react to new immigration?
Political machines catered to the "new immigrants"
1. Bosses often traded jobs and services for votes creating powerful immigrant voting blocks for their own purposes.
Machines provided employment on the city's payroll, found housing for new immigrants, gifts of food and clothing to the needy, helped with legal counseling, and helped get schools, parks, and hospitals built in immigrant neighborhoods.
-Most new immigrants came through here
-The statue of liberty that stands there represents the influx of immigrants and the struggles they went through (overpopulation in Europe and rapid industrialization left many with either nowhere to go or forced many to change their traditional occupations.)
The Burlingame Treaty in 1868 between the U.S. and China allowed unrestricted immigration to work on the transcontinental railroad and Angel Island in San Francisco was the main processing center for Chinese immigrants.
city vs. state national reform efforts
The Social Gospel movement emerged
a. Advocated that Christians should work to improve life on earth rather than waiting for the afterlife.
• Sought to improve problems of alcoholism and unemployment
• Tried to mediate between managers and unions
• Did much to spark the Progressive reform at the turn of the century
Most important causes of economic growth during the Gilded Age?
-Natural resources like iron
Most important effects of economic growth during the Gilded Age?
Compare and contrast Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor
-Inclusive with race, gender, etc.
-Wanted specific and demanding changes
-Collaborated with big businesses to make change
Got the 8-hour day and graduated income tax
-No new immigrants allowed
-"Bread and butter" issues
-Did not collaborate with big businesses
-Made little change (some members got jobs because of their skill but that's it)
-Fought for workers' rights
-founded by white men
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