naturalistic observation
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an index(r) of the extent to which individuals scores on one variable are systematically associated with their scores on another variable.

ranges from range is -1.00 to +1.00

Stronger= Closer to +1 or -1

Weaker= Closer to 0 direction is + or -

both low numbers or both high numbers= positive correlation

both opposite numbers= negative correlation
2its not good vs bad its together vs against each other
testing different age groups at one time, testing differences and not age changes. 2 or more age groups studied at one point in time. Results are faster than longitudinal testing because you are testing the ages at the same time, looking for developmental differences

-age differences (hints at developmental trends)
-fast and inexpensive

-no information about development of individuals (comparing group averages)
-age effects confounded with cohort effects (BUT..cohort effects no problem if age groups are closer in range)(ex. 2yo and 4yo)
testing age changes over time, studying one group over time for developmental change. time span doesn't matter, can be life time or just a few weeks.

-age changes (development of individuals)
-links between early experiences and later behavior

-time consuming and expensive
-attrition: people dropping out of the study
-changes in measurement
-repeated testing (people may just learn to get better at that test specifically)
Freud~Psychosexual~psyhcoanalytic DISCONTINUITY
-Erikson~Psychosocial~psychoanalytic DISCONTINUITY
-Skinner~Behaviorism/Operant Conditioning~learning CONTINUITY
-Bandura~Social Learning Theory~learning DISCONTINUITY
-Piaget~Cognitive Developmental Theory CONTINUITY

continuity: view human development as a process that occur in small steps, without sudden change
Discontinuity: tends to picture the course of development as a series of stair steps, each elevates the individual to a new level of functioning
Freud:PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY -oral- mouth as source of pleasure. oral gratification from mother important for later development -anal- libido focused on anus, and toilet training causes conflicts between biological urges and societal demands -phallic-libido focus on genitals. resolution of the oedipus or electra complex, these result in the identification with same-sex parent and development of superego -latent- libido is quiet, energy invested in schoolwork and play with same sex friends. -genital-puberty reawakens the sexual instincts as youths seek to establish mature sexual relationships and pursue the biological goal of reproductionEriksonPSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY trust vs. mistrust—can I trust others? autonomy vs. shame and doubt — can I act on my own? initiative vs. guilt — can I carry out my plans successfully? industry vs. inferiority — am I competent compared with others identity vs. role confusion —who am I and where am I going? intimacy vs. isolation — am I ready for a committed relationship? generatively vs. stagnation — have I given something to future generations? integrity vs. dispare — has my life been meaningful?Skinner:OPERANT CONDITIONING Individual makes an association between behavior and consequence. Learners behavior becomes more or less probable depending on the consequences it produces. People tend to repeat behaviors that have desirable consequences and cut down on behaviors that have undesirable consequences. *Reinforcement: increases the strength of the behavior -positive reinforcement:Something DESIRABLE is added to the situation that increases the behavior (EX: dad gives into whining kid making the whining more likely in the future) -negative reinforcement:When a behavior is strengthened because something UNDESIRABLE is REMOVED from the situation or escaped or avoided after the behavior occurs. (EX: buckling up your seatbelt to make the dinging go away) *Punishment:decreases the strength of the behavior -positive punishment: when an UNDESIRABLE stimulus is the consequence of a behavior (someone is unhappy with the outcome because of your behavior) (EX:Dad calls kid a baby, the kid doesn't like that, kid is less likely to whine in the future) -negative punishment:when DESIRABLE stimulus is removed following the behavior(EX:dad takes phone away to discourage future whining)BanduraSOCIAL LEARNING THEORY -observational learning:simply learning by watching the behavior of other people -latent learning: learning occurs but is not evident in behavior, children can learn and not imitate. -vicarious reinforcement:process which learner become more or less likely to perform a behavior based on whether consequences experienced by the behavior they observe are reinforcing or punishing -self-efficacy:belief that they can effectively produce a particular desired outcome.PiagetCOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY 1.Sensorimotor Stage: 0-2 -origins of intelligence in infancy -infants know things only through own sensory experiences and motor actions -if not in direct contact (seeing, touching, etc.) then people and objects cease to exist -lack object permanence ---object permanence: the ability to know an object is still there even when something is covering it up -infants move from depending on reflexes —> to repeating actions -until they're able to understand relationships between actions and effects on the world -CONSTRUCTING RULES ABOUT HOW THINGS WORK A. Sensorimotor to preoperations: -new cognitive skills= mental representations and symbolic thought -ex: --object permanence --deferred imitation (delayed imitation) --pretend play --language 2. Preoperational Stage: 2-7 -own special way of thinking -ex: --ask dad if he's been a boy his whole life --girl says her daddy isn't the president he's her daddy -egocentrism: they think everyone thinks what they are thinking. inability to see other people have their own mind,thoughts, and point of view. ex. kid talking about their aunt sally to a stranger but don't realize the stranger doesn't know aunt sally. it is NOT selfishness --test: three mountains= different objects around mountains, have kid stand on one side and someone else on the other side. ask the kid what they think you can see from the other side and they will list everything THEY can see if they have egocentrism -(Transductive reasoning) phenomenalistic causality: when 2 events occur together, they believe that one caused the other. believe correlation=causation -Nominal realism: name of object belongs to that object and only that object. Name can only be used for this object and object can only be called by this name -animistic (animism) thought: attribute life-like characteristics to inanimate objects -class inclusion: the idea that something can be classified in more than one group (dog and a collie). Preocupational children CAN NOT see this double classification -conservation: knowledge that certain properties remain the same even though appearance has changed. pre operational children DO NOT have conservation because they lack reversibility --conservation of liquid --conservation of number B. Preoperations to concrete operations --pass several tasks --conservation --three mountains --class inclusion --appearance-reality 3. Concrete operational Stage: 7-11 -new skills= thinking logical -operations --reversible mental actions --perspective taking --decentration --reversibility --transformational thought --dual representation -relating to actual, specific thing or instance -part of your physical experiences 4.formal operational stage: 11-12 -abstract -without reference to specific instance -thought processes that go beyond your personal physical experience -hypothetical reasoning -able to think about form or logic of statements and ideas -combination of liquids problem: if they can do it then they are in formal operations stage --4 colorless liquids + indicator --water changes with the indicator child is asked to change the color --in formal operations child will try to think of all the different ways to mix it, and systematically test each way --concrete operational child would just for 1,2,3,4 and thats it -pendulum problem: use pendulum to figure out what is important to make it workClassical conditioning—be able to identify and analyze new examples-unconditioned stimulus: one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. unconditioned response: response that is an unlearned response that occurs naturally in reaction to unconditioned stimuli conditioned stimulus: previously neutral stimulus that after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response conditioned response: acquired response that is under control of a stimulusPeriods of prenatal development and why concept of sensitive period is important-The germinal period: lasts 2 weeks, fertilization, zygote divides, cells travel down fallopian tube, inner cell mass forms(blastocyst), blastocyst attaches to the wall of the uterus, becomes fully embedded in the wall. -The embryonic period: 3rd-8th week. now an embryo, heart begins to beat, lungs, eyes, then ears mouth throat take shape, heart and brain divides in parts, fingers emerge, facial features , sexual differentiation, most structures and organs are present -The fetal period: 9th week-end. bone tissue emerge, becomes fetus, head is huge, fingers and toes formed. genetalia formed, arms and legs, movement, breathing movements, fingernails, toenails, hair, teeth buds, eyelashes, gains weight, brain grows The sensitive period: during a time of rapid growth (weeks 3-8 in utero) and the developing organism is especially sensitive to environmental influences positive and negativeMethods for assessing perceptual abilities in infants—habituation: the same stimulus is repeatedly presented until the infant grows bored with what has become firmiliar and disengages. Researchers can measure how long until an infant becomes bored, also can measure how distinct a second new stimulus needs to be in order to recapture their attention dishabituation: is when we respond to an old stimulus as if it were new again preferential looking: two stimuli are simultaneously shown to an infant to determine which one they prefer, which is inferred to be the one they look at longer. adding head-mounted, eye-tracking cameras has allowed researchers to more precisely measure preferential looking. operant conditioning: infants are conditioned to reliably respond a certain way to a certain stimulus. once this response is well-established, the researcher can examine the conditions under which the infants will or will not continue to produce the behavior. Continued head turning suggests that infants do not detect a noticeable difference between the original and new stimuli, where lack of the conditioned response is evidence that they DO distinguish between the two stimuli.Brain development in infancy and adolescenceinfant: continued brain development, rapid growth, and impressive sensory and reflexive capabilities plasticity: responsive to the individuals experiences and can develop in a variety of ways negative plasticity: the developing brain is highly vulnerable to damage if it is exposed to drugs or disease or deprived of sensory and motor experiences positive plasticity: the highly adaptable brain can often recover successfully from injuries Adolescent: value of gray matter increases, peaks, then decreases. This is associated with increased synaptogenesis (forming of synapses) before puberty, followed by a period of heightened pruning of synapses (removal of synapses). Brains white matter increases in a linear way . Related to risky behavior: The part of the brain involved in regulating self-control has not yet matured. Adolescence is in a period of increased responsiveness to rewards.Roediger's research on effective study strategies (and strategies that don't work very well);effective: Effective study strategies include, relating the information you are studying to what you already know making the material meaningful to us. We can outline/take notes, meaning we are recoding the information into our own words that make sense to our process. Converting verbal information into mental images can also be a great technique, this can make it easier to recall the image and then recall the information. Last, it is beneficial to space out study sessions across a few days instead of doing it all the night before. non effective:Reading and rereading is a great start to studying, but statistically this is not the best way to learn the material because you are not processing it in a way that makes you retrieve the information on your own. Instead you should be self-testing and doing that by notecards, multiple-choice questions, and fill in the blank questions, often found at the end of the chapter in a text book. These self-testing methods help your retention when the test finally comes and statistically is a better way to study when trying to recall information on the test later on.metamemory: retrieval: encoding:metamemory: checking self depth of learning and know when to work harder retrieval: process of getting information out when it is needed (recognition, recall, cued recall) encoding: get the information into the systemIQ tests—n -normal distribution: -reliability -validity: -self-fulfilling prophecy (Rosenthal effect):normal distribution: symmetrical, bell shaped spread around the average score of 100 reliability: is consistency across time (test-retest reliability), across items (internal consistency), and across researchers (interrater reliability). validity: is it measuring what they think its measuring self-fulfilling prophecy (Rosenthal effect):is the phenomenon whereby others' expectations of a target person affect the target person's performance.high expectations lead to better performance and low expectations lead to worseCompare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky.Vygotsky: process of animal and human development are fundamentally different cognitive development is different in different social and historical contexts appropriate init of analysis is the social, cultural, and historical context cognitive growth results from social interactions children and their partners co-construct knowledge social processes become individual psychological ones adults are especially important because they know the culture's tools of thinking learning precedes development training can help mediate development Piaget: process of animal and human development are fundamentally the same cognitive development is mostly the same universally appropriate unit of analysis is the individual cognitive growth results from the childs independent explorations of the world children construct knowledge on their own individual, egocentric processes become more social peers are especially important because the cognitive conflict triggered by different perspectives of other children is not so overwhelming that it cannot be resolved development precedes learning (children cannot master certain things until they have right cognitive structures) training is largely ineffective in "speeding up" developmentLanguage development— phonemes: syntax: semantics: pragmatics: overregularization:phonemes: basic units of sound which can change the meaning of a word (bit/pit) syntax: the systematic rules for forming sentences. (Fang Fred bit. Fang bit fred. Fred bit Fang) semantics: study of meanings through the relationships of words, how they are used, and how they are said. ("sherry was green with jealousy." but she wasn't actually green) pragmatics:rules for specifying how language is used appropriately in different social contexts. (knowing when to say what to whom) overregularization: over applying the rules to cases in which the proper form is irregular (foots, goed)Dweck's theory of achievement motivation (mindsets and goals)fixed mindset: tend to believe that what you have is fixed. You either have a skill or you don't growth mindsets: belief that abilities and talents are not fixed but can be fostered thorough hard work and effort mastery goals: aiming to learn new things so that they can improve their abilities performance goals: aiming to prove their ability rather than improve it and seek to be judged as smart and not dumbKohlberg's stages of moral development-Pre conventional Morality: rules are external rather than internal --Stage 1: punishment and obedience: worried about punishment/consequence. don't want to get caught or in trouble. child will obey authority to avoid punishment. bigger the consequence the "worse the action" --Stage2 Marketplace orientation: whats in it for me? conform to rules to satisfy personal needs. -Conventional Morality: internalized many moral values. perspectives of other people are clearly recognized and given serious consideration to first win their approval and then to maintain social order --Stage 3 good boy, good girl: other peoples perspectives, avoid disapproval. what is right is now what pleases, helps, or is approved by others. mutual give and take relationships. --Stage 4 law and order: duties, rules, and conventions. what is right conforms to the rules of legitimate authorities and is good for society as a whole. belief that rules and laws maintain social order. -Post conventional Morality: distinguish between what is morally right and what is legal --Stage 5 social contract: serve the greater good of society. challenge established law and call for change in a law that compromises basic rights --Stage 6 Universal ethical principles: humans above all elseCategories of temperament and goodness-of-fittemperament:a genetically based pattern of tendencies to respond in predictable ways, building blocks of personality easy temperament: typically content/happy, and open and adaptable to new experiences such as strangers or new food. Regular sleeping and eating habits and tolerate frustrations and discomforts. difficult temperament:active, irritable, and irregular in their habits. react negatively to changes in routine and slow to adapt to new people or situations. Cry frequently and loudly, tantrums when frustrated. slow-to-warm-up temperament: relatively inactive, somewhat moody, moderately regular in daily schedules. slow to adapt to new people and situations, but typically respond mildly to them. eventually adjust and show quiet interest in new people, foods, or places. goodness-of-fit:The extent to which the child's temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of the social world to which she must adapt. -ex. Child has difficult stormy responses from beginning of solid foods, school, birthday parties.. if parent is patient and waits for child to adapt, then child will ideally not develop serious behavioral problems because of the "fit" of the parent and the childs behavior. If the "fit" for the child had been poor (by punishing or being impatient) the child might face behavioral issues -ex. a "good fit" parent to a shy child would be a parent that upsets their experiences to make them become more outgoing. A "bad fit" would be a parent that is overprotective because they're enabling the shy behaviorCategories of parenting stylesauthoritarian parenting: restrictive parenting, high demandingness-control and low acceptance-responsiveness. parents impose many rules, expect strict obedience, rarely explain why the child should comply, and rely on power-assertion tactics like physical punishment to gain compliance authoritative parenting: more flexible. quite demanding and exert control, but are also sensitive to children. set clear rules and consistently enforce them but have rationales for their rules and explain them. responsive to children needs and point of view, involve children in family decisions. clear they are in charge but communicate respect for children. permissive parenting: high in acceptance-responsiveness but low in demandingness-control. child centered and have few rules and demands. encourage children to express their feelings and impulses, rarely exert control over their behavior. neglectful parenting: low demandingness-control and low acceptance-responsiveness. pretty uninvolved in childs upbringing. seem to not care about children. may be hostile or indifferent. no setting or enforcing rules.Categories of attachmentsecure attachment: explores room when mother is in it because she serves as a secure base. infant is upset by separation but greets mother warmly and is quickly comforted upon her return. outgoing with strangers when mother is present. continuously monitors caregivers whereabouts, retreats to her for comfort resistant attachment: infant does not dare venture off to play even when mother is present. shows strong separation anxiety. when mother returns infant stays near but is not comforted and does not calm down—resist if mother tries to make physical contact. wary of strangers even when mother is present. avoidant attachment: infants play alone but are not adventurous. show little stress when separated from parent. avoid contact or seem indifferent when parent returns. may avoid or ignore strangers. seem to shut down emotions and distance themselves from parents. disorganized-disoriented attachment: act dazed and freeze or lie on the floor immobilized when mother returns after separation. may seek contact but abruptly move away as the mother approaches them, only to seek contact again. stuck between approaching or avoiding parent. mother is not a source of comfort.Categories of peer status and aggressive behaviorpopular: well liked by most and rarely disliked rejected:rarely liked and often disliked neglected: neither liked nor disliked.invisible to peers controversial: liked by many but also disliked by many average: in the middle of liked and disliked scale Agressive behavior: rejected kids