Baylor PSY 1305 Final

scientific attitude
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Terms in this set (331)
behavioralobservable behavior (NO MENTAL PROCESSES)social-sulturalsocial, culturehumanisticflourishing, growth, potential, acceptancecounseling psychologistsdeal with day-to-day life problems (NOT mental disorders)clinical psychologiststreat mental disorders but no NOT prescribe medicationpsychiatriststreat mental disorders with the use of medication (only type with MD)community psychologistsdeal with institutional issues (NOT mental disorders); help groups of people (institutions, corporations, communities, etc)hindsight biasI knew it all along phenomenonOverconfidencethe tendency to be more confident than correctoperational definitionsfacilitate replication of studiesdescriptive research methodscase studies, naturalistic observation, surveyscase studystudies on person or a few people in-depthnaturalistic observationobserving and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situationSurveysresearch in which a representative sample of people are asked (often anonymously) questions about their attitudes or behaviorcorrelation coefficienta statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)Phrenologythe detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities.Dendritesa neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell bodyglial cellssupport cells found in the nervous systemaction potentiala neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axonthresholdthe level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulseall-or-none responsea neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing.Acetylcholine (ACh)enables muscle action, learning, and memoryDopamineinfluences movement, learning, attention, and emotionSerotoninAffects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousalalzheimer'snot enough acetylcholineparkinson's diseasenot enough dopamineSchizophreniatoo much dopaminedepressionnot enough serotoninNorepinephrinehelps control alertness and arousalGABAa major inhibitory neurotransmitterGlutamateexcitatory neurotransmitterEndorphinsaffect perception of pain and pleasure (released when you exercise)Agonistincreases action of neurotramsitter (SSRIs)SSRIsreuptake inhibitors for serotoninAntagonistdecreases action of neurotransmitterCNSbrain and spinal cordPNSconnections to the rest of the bodyANSautonomic nervous system; automaticSNScontrols skeletal muscles and voluntary actionssympathetic nervous systemthe division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations; INCREASES heart rate, respiration, perspiration; DECREASES digestionparasympathetic nervous systemthe division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy; DECREASES heart rate, respiration, perspiration; INCREASES rate of digestionendocrine systemthe body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstreamElectroencephalogram (EEG)electrodesMagnetoencephalography (MEG)magnetic fieldsPosition Emission Tomography (PET)radioactive glucose, blood sugarmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)anatomyfunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)successive scans, function, blood flowOlder brainbrainstem, medulla, thalamus, reticular formation, cerebellumlimbic systemamygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampusbrainstemautomatic survival functionsmedullacontrols heartbeat and breathingthalamussensory control centerreticular formationarousalcerebellumimplicit memory, coordination and balanceamygdalafear and aggressionHypothalamushomeostasis, regulation of bodyHippocampusexplicit memoryfrontal lobesjudgment, planning, self-control, speaking and muscle movementmotor cortexenable voluntary movement; frontal lobeparietal lobessensation (processing feelings of touch)somatosensory cortexenables processing of sensations (touch and movement); parietal lobeoccipital lobesvisionvisual cortexenables vision; occipital lobestemporal lobeshearingauditory cortexenables hearing; temporal lobescorpus callosumthe large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between themselective attentionthe focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulusinattentional blindnessfailing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewherechange blindnessfailing to notice changes in the environmentdual processingthe principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracksparallel processingthe processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneouslysequential processingthe processing of one aspect of a problem at a time; used when we focus attention on new or complex tasksNREM-1hallucinations, hypnagogic sensationshypnagogic sensationssensations of falling or floating that are sometimes later incorporated into memoriesNREM-2sleep spindlesNREM-3deep sleep, delta waves, sleep disordersREMsleep paralysis, paradoxical sleep, dreamsinsomniarecurring problems in falling or staying asleepNarcolepsyuncontrollable sleep attackssleep apneaa sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakeningsnight terrorsNREM-3; cause a person to appear terrified suddenly while sleeping; NOT NIGHTMARESDepressantsdrugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functionsStimulantsDrugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.Hallucinogenspsychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory inputmild hallucinogenmarijuana, ecstasyassociative learningclassical and operantcognitive learningobservational learningclassical conditioningassociating 2 stimulioperant conditioningassociating a behavior with a consequencerespondent behaviorbehavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulusunconditioned stimulus (US)cause of a naturally occuring responseunconditioned response (UR)naturally occurring responseneutral stimulus (NS)a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioningconditioned stimulus (CS)a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken placeconditioned response (CR)the response to a CSacquisitionthe phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together over and over until learnedgeneralizationthe tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responsesDiscriminationin classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimuluslaw of effectThe principle that behaviors are selected by their consequencesReinforcementany event that strengthens the behavior it followspunishmentan event that decreases the behavior that it followspositive punishmentaddition of something unpleasantnegative punishmentremoval of something goodpositive reinforcementgive something goodnegative reinforcementremoval of something badmirror neuronsneurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar actiontemperamenta person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensitymolecular geneticsstructure and function of genesmolecular behavior geneticsstructure and function of genes AND how genes affect our behaviorIndividualismgiving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identificationsCollectivismgiving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordinglyaggressionany physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroyrelational aggressionnonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other peopleprimary sex characteristicsthe body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possiblesecondary sex characteristicsnonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hairIntersexpossessing biological sexual characteristics of both sexesAndrogynydisplaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristicsbottom-up processinganalysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory informationtop-down processinginformation processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectationsabsolute thresholdthe minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the timedifference thresholdThe minimum amount of difference that can be detected between two stimuliWeber's Lawthe principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)signal detection theoryour ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD may change based on external factors (our expectations, previous experiences, context)wavelengthdetermines COLOR and PITCHAmplitudedetermines INTENSITY and loudnessRodslight sensitive; black and white; peripheral visionConescolor vision; well-light and fine details, central visionYoung-Helmholtz trichromatic theorythe theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color.opponent-process theoryopposing retinal processes enable color visionafterimage effectvisual illusion in which retinal impressions persist after the removal of a stimulus, believed to be caused by the continued activation of the visual systemGestalt Principlesproximity, continuity, closureretinal disparitya binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance—the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.visual cliffa laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animalssensorinueral hearing losshearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness; COCHLEAR IMPLANTConductionhearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear's processor which conducts sounds to the cochlea; hearing aidplace theoryin hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulatedfrequency theoryin hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitchtelepathymind to mind communicationclairvoyanceperceiving remote events, such as sensing that a friend's house is on fireprecognitionperceiving future eventssensory memorythe immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory systemshort-term memoryactivated memory that holds a few items briefly (3-7 items)long-term memorythe relatively permanent storage of information; limitlessworking memorypulls from both short-term and long-term memory to complete a task; type of short-term memoryexplicit memorymemory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"hippocampus and frontal lobesprocessing sites for explicit memoriesimplicit memoryMemories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously; automatic; classical conditioning; muscle memorycerebellum and basal gangliaimplicit memory formationcerebellumassociation memorybasal gangliamuscle memoryflashbulb memorya clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event; evidence against repressionAmygdalaflashbulb memory formationencoding specificity principlethe idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall itstate-dependent memoryThe theory that information learned in a particular state of mind (e.g., depressed, happy, somber) is more easily recalled when in that same state of mind.mood-congruent memorythe tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad moodanterograde amnesiaan inability to form new memoriesretrograde amnesiaan inability to retrieve information from one's pastproactive interferencethe disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new informationretroactive interferencethe disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old informationdrive-reduction theorythe idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the needYerkes-Dodson Lawthe psychological principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousalhierarcy of needsMaslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become activephysiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization, self-transcendenceorder of maslow's hierarchyghrelin and orexinthe two hormones secreted by an empty stomach and hypothalamus, respectively, that signal hungerinsulin, leptin, PYYhormones that decrease appetitesexual response cyclethe four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolutionsexual dysfunctiona problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioningParaphiliaHaving sexual arousal to unusual stimulierotic plasticitysexual variability, fluidity, or flexibilityfraternal birth order effectmen who have order brothers are more likely to become homosexual and is 1/3 more likely for each brotheraffiliation needthe need to build relationships and to feel part of a groupOstracismexclusion from a society or groupachievement motivationa desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standardJames-Lange Theoryfirst we have physiological arousal, then we experience emotionCannon-Bard Theoryphysiological arousal and emotion happen at the same timetwo-factor theorySchachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousalspillover effectarousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event; two-factor theoryleft side of brainThe side of the brain involved in speaking, math, recognizing words faster and language.right side of brainside of the brain for facial recognitionleft side of brainside of brain for positive emotions and anger; APPROACH emotionsright side of brainside of brain for mostly negative emotions (fear, disgust); AVOID emotionsCatharsisthe process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions.feel-good, do-good phenomenonpeople's tendency to be helpful when already in a good moodType A personalitypersonality type that describes people who are competitive, driven, hostile, and ambitiousType B personalityPersonality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.attribution theorythe theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's dispositioncentral route persuasionpersuasion that occurs when people critically consider the facts and arguments presentedperipheral route persuasionpersuasion that occurs when people are influenced by outside, irrelevant factorssocial facilitationstronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others; weaker with unlearned and difficult taskssocial loafinglaziness that occurs when people work in groupsDeindividuationthe loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymitygroup polarizationthe enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the groupfrustration-aggression principlethe principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggressionmere exposure effectthe phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of thembystander effectthe tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are presentdiffusion of responsibilitythe tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same wayKitty Genovesewoman whose murder in front of witnesses led to research on bystander effectIdstrives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive urges; pleasure principleegomediates demands of id, superego, and reality; reality principleSuperegopart of the personality that acts as a moral center; the consciencepsychosexual developmentprocess proposed by Freud in which pleasure-seeking urges focus on different erogenous zones of the body as humans move through five stages of lifeoral stageFreud's first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouthanal stageFreud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretionsphallic stageFreud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasurelatency stagethe fourth psychosexual stage, in which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skillsgenital stageFreud's last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence).Oedipus complexaccording to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival fatherFixationaccording to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolvedRepressionin psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memoriesRegressionpsychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixatedreaction formationpsychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.Projectionpsychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to othersRationalizationpsychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.Displacementpsychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outletDenialpsychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.Carl RogersDeveloped "client-centered" therapyperson-centered perspectivepeople are basically good, and given the right environment their personality will develop fully and normallyacceptance, genuineness, empathyRoger's three keys to personal growthunconditional positive regardaccording to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another personTraita characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reportsfactor analysisa statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test that tap basic components of a traitConscientiousnessbeing, organized, methodic, thoroughAgreeablenessbeing kind, affectionate, sympatheticNeuroticismdegree of emotional instability or stabilityOpennesswillingness to try new things and be open to new experiencesExtraversiondimension of personality referring to one's need to be with other peopleconscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversionbig 5 traits of personalitysocial cognitive theoryreferring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social worldreciprocal determinismthe interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environmentSpearman's theory of general intelligenceone factor that contributes to performance on any intellectual taskGardner's Theory of Multiple IntelligencesSeven defined types of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal; supported by savant syndromThrustone's primary mental abilities7 types of intelligenceSternberg's Triarchic Theoryanalytical, creative, practicalemotional intelligencethe ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotionsachievement testa test designed to assess what a person has learnedaptitude testa test designed to predict a person's future performanceReliabilityconsistency of measurementValiditythe extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed tocrystallized intelligenceour accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with agefluid intelligenceour ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthoodFlynn effectThe rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nationszygotefertilized egg; conception-2 weeks2 weeks- 9 weeksembryo time9 weeks and beyondfetus timeSchemaa concept or framework that organizes and interprets informationAssimilationinterpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemasaccommodationadapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new informationsensorimotor stagein Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activitiesobject permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived; sensorimotor stagepreoperational stagein Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logicEgocentrisma child's difficulty taking another's point of view; preoperationaltheory of mindability to reason about what other people know or believe; preoporationalconcrete operational stagein Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete eventsconservationthe principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects; concrete operationalformal operational stagein Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract conceptssecure attachmentdistressed when mom leaves, but comforted when she returnsinsecure attachment (anxious)distressed when mom leaves and comes backinsecure attachment (avoidant)seeming indifferent to mother's departure and returnauthoritarian parentingdemanding, uncompromising parentingpermissive parentingno rules/restraint, still involved with childnegligent parentinguninvolved with childauthoritative parentingdemanding but reasonable, allows conversation and compromisepreconventional moralitymoral understanding determined by rewards and punishmentconventional moralitymoral understanding determined by laws/rules and authority figurespostconventional moralitymoral understanding determined by own ethical understandingidentityadolescence focusintimacyyoung adulthood focusearly adulthoodphysical decline begins (strength, reaction time, etc)middle adulthoodsexual activity lessens (menopause, decrease in sperm count and ejaculation speed)late adulthoodphysical and cognitive decline occurs; immune system weakens (NOT FOR COMMON COLD OR FLU)cross-sectional studya study in which people of different ages are compared with one anotherlongitudinal studyresearch in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long periodgeneralized anxiety disorderan anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousalpanic disorderAn anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.phobiaa specific fear of a certain object, situation, or activitysocial anxiety disorderintense fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of suchOCDan anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)PTSDan anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experiencemajor depressive disorder5+ depression symptoms for 2+ weekspersistent depressive disorder2+ depression symptoms for 2+ yearsbipolar disorderA mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.Schizophreniaa group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actionsenlarged ventricles and small thalamusbrain differences for schizophreniapositive symptomssymptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinkingnegative symptomssymptoms of schizophrenia that are marked by deficits in functioning, such as apathy, lack of emotion, and slowed speech and movementHallucinationsfalse sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulusDelusionsfalse beliefs, often of persecution or grandeurobsessionsrepetitive thoughtscompulsionsrepetitive behaviorsantisocial personality disorderpsychological disorder in which one demonstrates a lack of conscience; low emotional intelligenceavoidant personality disordera personality disorder characterized by inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticismschizotypal personality disordera psychological disorder characterized by several traits that cause problems interpersonally, including constricted or inappropriate affect; magical or paranoid thinking; and odd beliefs, speech, behavior, appearance, and perceptionsborderline personality disordercondition marked by extreme instability in mood, identity, and impulse controlnarcissistic personality disordercharacterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admirationanorexia nervosaan eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselvesbulimia nervosaan eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercisebinge eating disordersignificant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosafree associationin psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassingResistancein psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden materialinterpretationin psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insightTransferencein psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)behavior therapiesaction therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behaviorcounterconditioninga behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioningsystematic desensitizationA type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.virtual reality exposure therapyan anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speakingaversive conditioninga type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)token economyan operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treatscognitive therapytherapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactionsstress inoculation trainingteaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situationsinsight therapya variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defensespsychodynamic and humanisticinsight therapiespsychodynamic therapytherapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insighthumanistic psychologyhistorically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growthdepression and anxietypsychodynamic is best at treating:depression and anxietycognitive is best at treating:phobiasbehavioral is best at treating:OCD, PTSDcognitive-behavioral is best at treating:none (mild to moderate depression)humanistic is best at treating:antipsychotic drugsdrugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder; block dopamine receptorsantianxiety drugsdrugs used to control anxiety and agitation; depress CNSantidepressant drugsdrugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD; increase availability of neurotransmitters