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Psychology Final Exam
Terms in this set (72)
What does Social Psychology study?
looks at behavior and mental processes but also includes the social world in which we exist, as we are surrounded by others to whom we are connected and by whom we are influenced in so many ways
What is self-efficiency?
an individuals expectancy of how effective his/her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any circumstance
What is attributional theory?
process of explaining the behavior of others as well as one's own behavior
Situational Attributions (causes)
Cause- attributed to external factors (delays, the action of others, some other aspect of the situation) "He probably got caught in some bad traffic, and then he was late for a meeting."
Dispositional Attributions (causes)
cause- behavior attributed to internal facts (personality, character) "He's such a careless driver. He never watches out for other cars."
What is groupthink?
occurs when a decision-making group feels that it is more important to maintain group unanimity and cohesiveness than to consider the facts realistically
What is social loafing?
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
What is the in-group?
social groups with whom a person identifies; "us"
What is stereotyping?
attributing a certain though/cognition to a group of people (overgeneralizing). this is a cognitive aspect
The outcomes of the classic Zimbardo (1971) prison study
(70 young men were assigned to be prisoners or guards) The guards became increasingly more aggressive so the experiment was cancelled after the students became very deeply involved in their assigned roles.
What is the lowball technique?
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
What is the bystander effect?
the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
What is persuasion?
the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions
What is cognitive dissonance?
the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.
What is conformity?
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
How was conformity studied by Asch (1951)?
subjects conformed to group opinion about 1/3 of the time. Asch showed participants a white card with varying lengths. The task was to determine which line on a second card was most similar to the line of the first card
(CHAPTER 13) How can temperament affect personality development?
temperament is the characteristics each person is born with (easy, difficult, slow to warm up)
Cross-cultural evidence for personality types and traits
finds support for the five factor model of personality traits in a number of different cultures
Objective personality tests
concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular persons perceptions and may be influenced by biases prejudice, and personal experiments
projective personality tests
techniques that use various ambiguous stimuli that a subject is encouraged to interpret and from which the subject's personality characteristics can be analyzed (inkblot)
Psychological defense mechanism theorized by Freud
unconscious distortions of a person's perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety
Three parts of personality developed by Freud :Id
part of the personality present at birth; completely unconscious
Three parts of personality developed by Freud :Ego
part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality; mostly conscious, rational, and logical
Three parts of personality developed by Freud :Superego
part of the personality that acts as a moral center
What are personality traits?
enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts
What is the "third force" in personality theory?
the humanistic perspective focusing on the aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice
What is the pleasure principle?
Seeking immediate satisfaction of basic sexual and aggressive drives
The five factor (Big Five) model of personality
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences
the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability
one's need to be with other people
the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant
degree of emotional instability or stability
What is locus of control?
a determinant of personality in which one either assumes that one's actions directly affect events and reinforcement one experiences or that such events and reinforcements are the result of luck, fate, or powerful others
(CHAPTER 14) What is Bipolar Disorder?
periods of mood that may range from normal to manic, with or without episodes of depression, or spans of normal mood interspersed with episodes of major depression and episodes of hypomania
What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?
a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both
What does the study of psychopathology focus on?
the study of abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
What is a panic attack and what are the symptoms?
sudden, intense panic; multiple physical and emotional symptoms sch as heart palpitations, rapid breathing, dizziness, racing thoughts
What is maladaptive behavior?
behavior arising from an underlying psychological or biological dysfunction that makes it difficult to adapt to the environment and meet the demands of day-to-day life
During medieval times, what was believed to cause abnormal behaviors?
holes were cut in an ill person's head to let out evil spirits. Hippocrates believed that mental illness came from an imbalance in the body's four humors (phlegm, black bile, blood, and yellow bile). In the Middle Ages, the mentally ill were labeled as witches
What is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (DSM-5) used for?
manual of psychological disorders and their symptoms useful in providing clinicians with descriptions and criteria for diagnosing mental disorders
What is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)?
an anxiety disorder characterized by flashbacks and recurrent thoughts of life-threatening or other traumatic events symptoms including a persistent ASD lasting longer than a month or can emerge as late as six months after trauma
What is the biological model of mental illness?
genetics/ chemical imbalances in the nervous system
What is Schizophrenia?
severely disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, inability to separate fantasy from reality
The different types of delusions common in Schizophrenia
a split between thoughts, emotions, and behavior
What is bulimia?
episodes of binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, laxatives, purgatives or diuretic abuse) to prevent weight gain
What is anorexia?
Which therapeutic perspective believes that all behavior is learned?
Biological Model of abnormality
behavior is caused by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body
abnormal behavior is learned
abnormal behavior stems from repressed conflicts and urges that are fighting to become conscious
abnormal behavior is the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences
(CHAPTER 15) What is psychotherapy and why is it helpful to people?
involves a person talking to a psychological professional about the person's problems (insight, action, goals)
What is unconditional positive regard?
the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person centered therapy
Understand the goals ad interventions associated with cognitive behavioral therapy
goals: !. relieve symptoms and solve problems. 2. Develop strategies for solving future problems. 3. Help change irrational, distorted thinking
What are self-help groups?
group of people with similar problems meet together without a therapist
What is systematic desensitization and how is it done?
Step 1: Relaxation Training, Step 2: Fear Hierarchy, Step 3: Progressive Exposure
What is exposure therapy and how is it done?
introduces clients to situations related to their anxieties under controlled conditions (flooding: rapid, intense exposure)
What is psychoanalysis?
therapy to reveal unconscious conflicts (dream interpretation)
What is person-centered therapy?
very nondirective, allowing the client to talk through problems and concerns while the therapist provides a supportive background
What is a token economy?
reinforcers earned and exchanged for desired things
What is modeling?
learning via observation and imitation
Some types of biomedical therapies:
affect biological functioning of body and brain (drugs, induced convulsions, and surgery to relieve or control the symptoms of mental disorders)
How is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) done?
delivery of an electric shock to either one side or both sides of a person's head (quick, short-term treatment for severe depression)
Different types of thought distortions
Arbitrary Interference, Selective thinking, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization, personalization
jumping to conclusions without evidence
focusing on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects
making sweeping conclusions based on only one incident
assuming too much personal responsibility
Magnification and minimization
negative events blown out of proportion; positive events ignored
What is nondirective therapy?
therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remains calm and nonjudgmental while the client talks
How does one modify behavior through extinction?
remove reinforcer, reduce undesirable behavior
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