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38 terms

Rocks & Minerals

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Mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, that has a crystal system and a definite chemical composition
Color
The absorption or lack of absorption of light
Hardness
A mineral's resistance to scratch
Cleavage
The tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces
Fracture
The tendency of a mineral to break along uneven and irregular surfaces
Streak
The color of a mineral in powdered form
Luster
The way a surface reflects light
Density
The amount of matter in a given space
Mohs Hardness Scale
Geologists determine a mineral's hardness by comparing it to the minerals on this scale
Inorganic
The mineral cannot form from materials that were once part of a living thing
Rock
A solid mixture of crystals of 1 or more minerals
Rock Cycle
The process by which 1 rock type changes into another
Composition
The minerals a rock is made of determine this
Texture
The rock is determined by the size, shapes, and positions of the grains of which it is made
Igneous Rock
Rock formed from the cooling of magma
Intrusive Igneous
Igneous rock formed from the cooling of magma inside the earth
Extrusive Igneous
Igneous rock formed from the cooling of lava on the earth's surface
Strata
Layers of rocks
Stratification
The layering of rocks
Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed from weathering and erosion of sediments
Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks that are made of fragments from other rocks and minerals
Chemical Sedimentary
Rocks that form from solutions of minerals and water
Organic Sedimentary
Rock that froms from the dead remains of plants and animals
Metamorphic Rock
Rock formed due to extreme heat and pressure
Non-foliated Metamorphic
Grains are not aligned
Foliated Metamorphic
Grains are aligned the the pages of a book
Magma
Molten rock inside the earth
Lava
Molten rock outside the earth
Coarse Grained
The rough texture of a rock
Fine Grained
The smooth texture of a rock
Melting
the process whereby heat changes something from a solid to a liquid
Cooling
the process when magma , lava , hot rock, or etc, somehow cool down or in the process of becoming cool.
Erosion
Water or wind loosen and carry away fragments of rock
Deposition
Sediments settle out of wind and water
Compaction
Sediments are pressed together in layers
Cementation
Dissolved minerals glue sediments together
Heat
the transfer of thermal energy
Pressure
the force pushing on an area or surface