Chemistry Finals Study guide

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The two most important properties of all matter
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A measure of the quantity of matter ismassA nonmetal is usuallybrittleA mixture isa blend of any two or more kinds of matter, as long as each maintains its own unique propertiesIf a mixture is not uniform throughout, it is calledheterogeneousA physical change occurs when aglue gun melts a glue stickWhich of the following is an extensive property of matterVolumeAll known chemical elements are organized into groups based on similar chemical properties in theperiodic tableA state of matter in which a material has no definite shape but has a definite volumeLiquidWhich of the following is not a chemical changemeltingNoble gasses are in group 18, and are best known because they areunreactiveA compound isa substance, made of two or more atoms that are chemically bonded ,that can be broken down into simpler, stable substancesA chemical can be defined asany substance that has definite a compositionMetalloids are oftensemiconductorsWhat are the reactants, and what are the products in the equation; copper + water --> copper(II) oxide + hydrogenreactants- copper and water Products- Copper (II) oxide and hydrogenCharacteristics of metalsConductor of heat and electricity; malleableCharacteristics of nonmetalspoor conductors; solid at room temp; not malleable or ductileIn one experiment, magnesium is melted. In the second, experiment magnesium is burned. Classify change as chemical or physical.The first is physical, the second is chemicalIntensive propertiesDo not depend on the amount of matter present Ex: Melting point, boiling pointextensive propertiesdepends on the amount of matter present; Ex: volumeWhich of these statements about mass is truethe mass of an object is determined by comparing it to an object of known massHow is the measurement of 0.000065 written in scientific notation6.5 x 10 ^-5 cm100 milliliters is equivalent to1 deciliterthe number of significant digits in the measurement 0.008060 cm is4The measurement 0.035550 g rounded off to two significant figures would be0.036gA statement that can be tested experimentally ishypothesisWhich of these is not one of the big 7 SI base unitsliterThe symbol mm representsmillimeterThe density of an object is calculated bydividing its mass by its volumeWhich of these statements about units of measure is not truemeasurements can be compared without knowing their unitsAll of the following are examples of units exceptmassWhich of the following symbols expresses uncertainty in a measurementplus minusThe symbols for units of length in order from smallest to largest aremm, cm, m, kmHow many minutes are in one week10,080 minThese values were recorded as the mass of products hen a chemical reaction was carried out three separate times: 8.83 g; 8.84 g; 8.82 g. he mass of the products from that reaction should have been 5.60 g. The values areprecise, but not accurateThe SI base unit for length and time aremeter and secondThe unit m^3 measuresvolumeWhich of the following observations is quantitativeThe liquid boils at 100 CelsiusIf 1 inch equals 2.54 cm, how many centimeters is equal to 1 yard91.4 cmFor numbers less than 0.1, such as 0.06, the zeros to the right of the decimal point but before the first nonzero digitshow the decimal place of the first digitWhen 64.4 is divided by 2.00, the correct number of significant figures in the result is3How many significant figures would the answer to the following calculation have 3.475 x 1.97 + 2.47123The 2 types of uncertaintyhuman error and instrument errorThe atomic theory proposed by Dalton has beenexpanded and modifiedAccording to Dalton's atomic theory, atomsof each element are identical in size, mass, and other propertiesRutherford's experiments led him to conclude that atoms contain massive central regions that havea positive chargeThe mass of 1 mol of chromium (atomic mass 51.996 amu) is51.996 gBecause most particles fired at metal foil passed straight through, Rutherford concluded thatatoms were mostly empty spaceThe atomic mass of an element listed in the periodic table is theaverage atomic massAn aluminum isotope consists of 13 protons, 13 electrons, and 14 neutrons. Its mass number is27Dalton incorporated the law of conservation of mass into his atomic theory by asserting thatatoms are indivisibleBecause any element used in the cathode produced electrons, scientists concluded thatall atoms contained electronsPhosphorus-33 (atomic number 15) contains18 neutronsAll isotopes of hydrogen containone protonAs the mass number of an element's isotopes of an element increases, the number of protonsremains the sameIn Rutherford's experiments, alpha particleswere used to bombard thin metal foilWhich concept in Dalton's atomic theory has been modified?atoms cannot be dividedChlorine has atomic number 17 and mass number 35. It has17 protons, 17 electrons, and 18 neutronsAll atoms of the same element have the sameatomic numberAccording to the law of conservation of mass, when sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen react to form a compound, the mass of the compound is ________ the sum of the masses of the individual elementsequal toNuclear forces exists because the particles in the nucleus areclose togetherProtons within a nucleus are attracted to each other bythe nuclear forceThe average atomic mass of an elementmay not equal the mass of any of its isotopesMost of the volume of an atom is occupied by theelectronsCarbon-14 (atomic number 6), the radioactive nuclide used in dating fossils, has8 neutronsThe number of atoms in 1 mol of carbon6.022 x 10^23Two atoms are isotopes if they containsame number of protons but different numbers of neutronsExperiments with cathode rays led to the discovery of theelectronThe average atomic mass of an element is the average of the atomic masses of itsnaturally occurring isotopesExplain how 1 mole of carbon has a mass of 12.01 g and 1 atom of carbon has an average mass of 12.01 amu. What allows us to recycle these numbers?The atomic mas is the mass of one mole of atoms. The mole is the number of atoms needed to have 12.01 g. 1 amu of carbon is about 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.The way they all relate to allows us to recycle these numbers. We can recycle because of Avogadro's number.Discuss Millikan's contribution to the study of electrons and how his work built on Thomson'sThomson discovered the electron, and Millikan discovered the charge of the electronAccording to Bohr, electrons cannot residein between orbitalsAccording to the Bohr model of the atom, the single electron of a hydrogen atom circles the nucleusin specific, allowed orbitsThe letter designations for the first four sublevels with the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in each sublevel ares:2, p:6,d:10, and f:14Which model of the atom explains why excited hydrogen gas gives off certain colors of light?the Bohr modelAccording to the particle model of light, certain kinds of light cannot eject electrons from metals becausethe energy of the light is too lowa three-dimensional region around a nucleus where an electron may be found is called anorbitalPauli Exclusion Principle2 electrons with the same spin cannot be togetherThe Bohr model of the atoms was an attempt to explain hydrogen'sline-emission spectrumThe specific wavelengths of light seen through a prism that are made when high-voltage current is passed through a tube of hydrogen gas at low pressure is aline-emission spectruma quantum of electromagnetic energy is calledphotona line spectrum is produces when an electron moves from one energy levelto a lower energy levelthe emission of electrons from metals that have absorbed photons is called thephotoelectric effectthe major difference between a 1s orbital and a 2s orbital is thatthe 2s orbital is at a higher energy levelFor an electron in an atom to change from the ground state to an excited state,energy must be absorbedHow many quantum numbers are needed to describe the energy state of an electron in an atom?4Because excited hydrogen atoms always produce the same line-emission spectrum, scientists concluded that hydrogenreleased photons of only certain energiesWhich model of the atom explains the orbitals of electrons as waves?the quantum model