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normal microbiota (normal flora)
microorganisms that live in the body and do not produce disease under normal conditions
microbial antagonism or competitive exclusion
normal microbiota benefit the host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful microorganisms
a relationship between two organisms in which at least one organism is dependent on the other
live microbial cultures applied to or ingested that are intended to exert a beneficial effect
a type of symbiosis where one organism benefits by deriving nutrients at the expense of the other organsim
microorganisms that ordinarily do not cause disease in their normal habitat in a healthy person, but may do so in a different environment (e. coli)
any disease that spreads from one host to another either directly or indirectly
the number of people in a population who develop a disease during a particular time period
the number of people in a population who develop a disease at a specified time regardless of when it first appeared
a disease that develops more slowly and the body's reactions may be less severe, but it is likely to continue or recur for long periods
a disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time, but then becomes active to produce symptoms of the disease
an infection in which the invading microorganisms are limited to a relatively small area of the body
systemic (generalized) infection
microorganisms or their products are spread throughout the body by the blood or lymph
agents of a local infection enter a blood or lymphatic vessel and spread to other specific parts of the body where they are confined to specific areas of the body
blood poisoning, a systematic infection arising from the multiplication of pathogens in the blood
caused by an opportunistic pathogen after the primary infection has weakened the bodies defenses
makes the body more susceptible to a disease and may alter the course of the disease
the interval between the initial infection and the first appearance of any signs or symptoms
a relatively short period that follows the period of incubation in some diseases, early mild symptoms
period of convalescence
the period the person regains strength and the body returns to its prediseased state
diseases that occur primarily in wild and domestic animals and can be transmitted to humans
the spread of an agent of disease by direct contact, indirect contact, or droplet transmission
direct contact transmission
the direct transmission of an agent by physical contact between its source and a susceptible host
indirect contact transmission
occurs when the agent of disease is transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host by means of a nonliving object
the passive transport of the pathogens on the insect's feet or other body parts
an active process of transmission through the blood, pathogen reproduces in the vector
infection that does not show any evidence of being present or incubating at the time of admission to a hospital; acquired as a result of a hospital stay
emerging infectious diseases
diseases that are new or changing, showing increase in incidence in the recent past
the science that studies when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations
entails collecting all data that describe the occurrence of the disease under study
begins with a hypothesis about a particular disease and experiments to test the hypothesis
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