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AP PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2
Terms in this set (71)
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
good theory: organizes observations, leads to clear hypothesis, stimulates research that will later lead to more developed theories
Hypothesis and testing them
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
test them through descriptive, correlational, and experimental methods.
a carefully worded statement of the procedures used in a research stud/ used to define the testing
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
the perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
"rage for order"
in our natural eagerness to make sense of our world we are prone to perceive patterns
a passion to explore ans understand without misleading or being mislead
Our tendency to believe we will perform better than we actually do. this results partly from our bias to seek info that confirms them.
(adj.) inclined to doubt; slow to accept something as true
after the student council election, a friend tells you he has known for weeks who would be elected president. What does this seem to illustrate?
while taking a standardized test with randomly scrambled answers, you notice that your last our answers have been "c." which of the following is true concerning the probability of the next answer being c?
it is unaffected by previous answers, it is likely to be c as any other answer
what do we call the tendency to exaggerate the correctness or accuracy of our beliefs and predictions prior to testing?
give an example of hindsight bias.
Marcy cannot recognize a definition on her flashcard. After turning the card over and viewing the term, she tells herself she knew what the answer was all along.
three components of the scientific attitude.
1) curiosity, or passion to explore, leads us to questions we want to investigate
2) skepticism keeps us from accepting ideas without sound support. i.e. Amazing Randi
3) humility keeps us open to the possibility of changing our ideas when they are not supported by the data.
Why is an operational definition necessary when reporting research findings?
allows others to replicate the procedure.
A researcher looking for gender differences in 3 year olds observes a preschool class and records how many minutes children of each gender play with dolls. She then compares the two sets of numbers. What type of descriptive research is she conducting?
Which of the following questions is best investigated by means of a survey?
are students more likely to be considered politically liberal or conservative
A testable prediction that drives research is known as a(n)
Researches are interested in finding out if winning Congressional candidates display more positive facial expressions than losing candidates. The researchers attend political debates and record how frequently each candidate displays positive facial expressions. Which research method are the researchers using?
An individual with an exceptional memory is identified. She is capable of recalling major events, the weather, and what she did on any given date. What research method is being used if a psychologist conducts an in depth investigation of this individual including questionnaires, brain scans and memory tests?
which of the following is most important when conducting survey research?
choosing a sample that includes every member of the population
A teacher wants to know if nightmares are more common than dreams. He asks volunteers from his 2nd period class to report how many dreams they had last week. he asks volunteers from his 3rd period to report the number of nightmares they had last week. Describe things wrong with the design of this study.
-There is no hypothesis stated.
-in asking for volunteers, the teacher is taking a nonrandom sample that is probably not representative of the population of interest.
- neither dreams nor nightmares are operationally defined, so they might be interpreted differently by later researchers.
- the research is not blind. The teacher could influence the results by the way he asked questions.
methods that describe behaviors, often by using case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations
associate different factors or variables (anything that contributes to a result)
manipulate variables to discover their effects.
what is an example of negative correlation?
people who spend time exercising, tend to weigh less
which of the following is used only in correlation studies?
a. double blind
c. random assignment
e. random sample
researchers have discovered that individuals with lower income levels report having fewer hours of total sleep. Therefore,...
they are positively correlated
which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?
what is the purpose of random assignment?
to reduce potential confounding variables??
students with higher scores on anxiety scales were found to have lower scores on standardized tests. What research method would show this relationship?
-This research method is a correlation study
- 3 possibilities for causation: anxiety could cause low test scores, low test scores could cause anxiety, or a third factor could cause both anxiety and low test scores. No conclusion can be drawn about causation because this is not an experiment.
which is a measure of variation?
which statistical measure of tendency is most affected by extreme scores?
A researcher calculates statistical significance for her study and finds a five percent chance that results are due to chance. Give an accurate interpretation of this finding.
this is the minimum result typically considered statistically significant
descriptive statistics __________, while inferential statistics __________.
descriptive summarizes data, while inferential determines if data can be generalized to other populations
in a normal distribution, what percentage of the scores in the distribution falls within one standard deviation on either side of the mean?
explain the difference between inferential and descriptive statistics in research.
- descriptive: organizes and summarizes the data collected during research
- inferential: used to help determine whether results can be generalized to a larger population through the calculation of statistical significance.
Which of the following is more likely to be emphasized in individualist cultures than in collectivist cultures?
a. gender differences
b. shared goals
c. personal achievement
d. cooperation of the group
e. preservation of tradition
c. personal achievement
what must a researcher do to fulfill the ethical principal of informed consent?
allow participants to chose whether to take part
which ethical principle requires that at the end of the study participants be told about the true purpose of the research?
which of the following beliefs would most likely be held by an individualist in a collectivist culture?
children should be encouraged to be developed harmonious relationships.
Provide 3 reasons why nonhuman animals are sometimes used in psychological research.
- some researchers use nonhuman animals because they are interested in understanding the animals themselves, including their thinking and behaviors.
-others use nonhuman animals to reduce the complexity that is part of human research. They hope to understand principles that may be similar to those that govern human psychological phenomena
- researchers also study nonhuman animals in order to apply the findings in ways that will help both humans and the other animals themselves