AP US History - Chapter 1 Study Set
Terms in this set (51)
Battle of Acoma (1599)
Fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Onate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609.
Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernan Cortes. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies.
False notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butches the Indians and steal their gold in the name of Christ.
Cahokia (c. 1100 A.D.)
Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans.
First part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level.
Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas, and in particular, the discovery of vast bullion deposits, helped bring about Europe's transition to capitalism.
Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey.
Form of political society that traditionally combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity. The Aztec and Inca empires in South America are early examples of civilizations in the New World.
The transfer of goods, crops and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492.
Sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires.
Spanish government's policy to "commend," or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the north American mainland.
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until they were conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.
People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico.
In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. After the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy tolls to Muslim middlemen.
Noche Triste (June 30, 1520)
"Sad night", when the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochitlan, killing hundreds. Cortes laid siege to the city the following year, precipitating the fall of the Aztec Empire and inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule.
Large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean and the American South.
Pope's Rebellion (1680)
Pueblo Indian rebellion which drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico.
Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A.D.; maize, beans and squash were grown together to maximize yields.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia.
Most North American Indian peoples relied on a rich agricultural diet of...
Corn (maize), beans, and squash
The Spanish settlements in New Mexico and California depended more on...
Catholic missionary efforts than on the discovery of gold and silver.
The final landscape of the North American continent were determined about 10,000 years ago by the...
Last retreat of the Great Ice age glaciers
The most sophisticated Indian civilizations were those erected by the
Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs
Beginning about 1000 A.D., Viking explorers created...
Small, temporary settlements near present-day Newfoundland.
Before the arrival of Columbus, the Indian peoples of North America...
Had developed many diverse religions, cultures, and ways of life.
The first European nation to sail around Africa and establish large slave-labor plantations was
The primary cause of the death of about 90% of the original Indian population in the centuries after Columbus's arrival was
Diseases like smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Was horrified at the catastrophic effects of disease on the native peoples.
- About half were professional soldiers and sailors
- Almost half included peasants, artisans, and members of the middling classes.
- They came to the Americas to serve God and the king, and also to get rich (almost most DID NOT find great wealth in the Americas)
Motives that drove the Spanish conquistadores in their New World exploits:
- Lust for gold and silver
- A desire to win royal titles and favors by expanding Spain's empire
- A hope of winning God's favor by bringing Christianity to pagan peoples
Was a female Indian slave who knew both Mayan and Nahuatl.
- Sent ambassadors bearing fabulous gifts to welcome the approaching Spaniards
- Thought the newcomers rode on the backs of deer
- Believed that Cortes was the god Quetzacoatl, whose return from the eastern sea was predicted in Aztec legends.
The primary motive for the Spanish to establish settlements in Florida and Texas was to...
Prevent the encroachment of other European powers, especially France.
The mission Indians of California...
The Black Legend refers to the unfounded belief that the...
Spanish only killed and stole the wealth of the Americas without creating any lasting culture.
The oldest major mountain range in North America is
The largest North American Indian Confederacy was created by
The legendary Hiawatha in the 16th Century
The most persuasive theory regarding the origins of American Indians is that they originally came from
The largest and most sophisticated Indian civilizations developed in
Central America and the Andes
Spices from Asia were extremely expensive in Europe because
Of the high charges paid to Muslim middlemen.
- Developed the caravel, a ship that could sail more closely into the wind.
- Discovered that they could return to Europe by sailing northwesterly from the African coast toward the Azores.
The largest and most powerful Indian confederacy in the territory of the present United States was established in the sixteenth century by
By 1492, the number of Native Americans in North America was close to
Before setting out on his voyage across the Atlantic, Columbus
Secured the sponsorship of the monarchs of a newly united Spain.
Spain gained the greatest riches of its American empire by
Seizing Indian gold and silver and mining more of the precious metals.
All of these resulted from the impact of the New World Bullion:
- Fed the growth of Capitalism
- Laid the foundations of the modern commercial banking system
- Stimulated the spread of commerce and manufacturing
DID NOT RESULT:
- Undermined international trade with Asia
The Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes was able to defeat the Aztecs partly because
The Aztec emperor Moctezuma initially welcomed Cortes into his capital city.
The Spanish Conquistadores...
Chafed with inactivity after the Reconquista of Spain.
The first universities established in the Americas were those of
Mexico City and Lima, Peru.
The Spanish felt considerable pressure from colonial rivalries for all of the following reasons:
- The English sent John Cabot to explore the NE Coast of North America in 1497 and 1498
- The French king sent Italian mariner, Giovanni de Verrazano, to probe the eastern seaboard in 1524.
- The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 gave Portugal favorable access to most of the New World landmass.
Frenchman Jacques Cartier journeyed hundreds of miles up the St. Lawrence River in 1534.
The primary motive for the first Spanish settlements in California was to
Convert the Indians to Christianity
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