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DSST-Lifespan Developmental Psychology Test 2
Terms in this set (277)
First scientific laboratory
Created Scientific method
Personality is linked to genetics
Study of observable behavior - Blank slate
How the mind learns and thinks
All people are inherently good
actions are based on unconscious motivation
Classification of the mind's structures
William James - the "how" part of behavior
Nature vs. Nurture
Whether or not biology plays a part in personality
a changing part of the person
a variable that always stays the same
the variable the experiment is trying to get information about
the variables that the experimenter controls
how much one variable changes in relation to each other
doctoral degree in psychology, cannot prescribe medicine
a medical doctor with a degree in psychotherapy, can prescribe drugs
principals and standards of behavior including morals
Part of the endocrine system
autonomic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
arousing part of the system
parasympathetic nervous system
calming part of the system
memory and emotion center
most developed and largest part of the brain
voluntary muscles and intelligence
the two large halves of the brain
coordinates all movements and muscles
control breathing and heart rate
sends commands to all other parts of the body
main relay station for sensory signals
Regulates internal temperature
Father of genetics
a full set of chromosomes
reproduction done with just the somatic cell
reproductive cells (eggs and sperm)
First part of a human
balance and body movement
how much sensation one has to have to feel something
white part of the eye
colored part of the eye
part of the eye that is black, opens and closes to let in light
a clear membrane that protects the eye
transparent and located in front of the eye
back of the eye. contains rods and cones.
use to view color
irrelevant stimuli that competes for attention
the number of full wavelengths that pass through a point in a given amount of time
amounts of pressure produced by a sound wave and is measured in decibels
a sound wave's amplitude
the perceptual quality of sound
includes pinna and external auditory canal
eardrum, anvil, stirrup
oval window, cochlea, organ of corti
a fluid filled structure in the inner ear that looks like a snail
Organ of Corti
a part of the ear inside the cochlea
People organize their perceptions by patterns
makes people see objects in three dimensions
proof that babies have depth perception
most important thing to Erickson
development of trust
trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
industry vs inferiority
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
ego integrity vs despair
the difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation
The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features.
the understanding of more advanced than simple classification, that some classes or sets of objects are also sub-sets of a larger class
the realization that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different
a statistical measure of typical scores for categories of information
the belief that you are the center of the universe and everything revolves around you
relating new information to something familiar
the process of working something out in your head
the ability to identify correctly something encountered before
being able to reproduce knowledge from memory
the representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together
a period in a child's development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not others
reflexive stage (0-2 months)
simple reflex activity such as grasping and sucking
primary circular reactions (2-4 months)
reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively
secondary circular reactions (4-8 months)
repetition of change actions to reproduce interesting consequences such as kicking ones feet to move a mobile suspended over the crib
coordination of secondary reactions (8-12 months)
responses become coordinated into more complex sequences. Actions take on an "intentional" character.
tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months)
discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it
Invention of new means through mental combination (18-12 months)
evidence of an internal representational system. symbolizing the problem-solving sequence before actually responding. Deferred imitation.
Preoperational phase (2-4 years)
increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric. The beginnings of symbolic rather than simple motor play.
intuitive phase (4-7 years)
speech becomes more social, less egocentric. the child has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas.
period of concrete operations (7-11 years)
evidence for organized, logical thought. there is the ability to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of conservation.
period of formal operation (11-15 years)
thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic. the ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes is evident.
complete rejection of the feeling or situation
hiding the feelings and not acknowledging them
turning a feeling into the exact opposite feeling. for example, saying you hate someone you are interested in.
projection is transferring your thoughts and feelings onto others. for example, someone who is being unfaithful themselves constantly accuses their partner of cheating.
feelings are redirected to someone else. someone who has a bad day at work and can't complain goes home and yells at their kids instead.
You deny your feelings and come up with ways to justify your behavior.
reverting to old behavior to avoid feelings
A type of displacement, redirection of the feeling into a socially productive activity.
highest need in hierarchy - level 5
level 4 need
belonging and love
level 3 need
level 2 need
level 1 need
reinforces good behavior
gives a negative sanction
the process of unassociating the condition with the response
a child does not take into consideration other people's needs
social learning theory
explicit role instruction (stereotyped), boys play with trucks and cars, girls wear make-up
was kept in a box and conditioned
something from conditioning carries over to another related area
search conducted by watching the subject
primitive part of the subconscious which wants food and sex
the mediator between ego and id
ethical, super good part of the subconscious
experiment to prove infants have depth perception
understanding that an object does not cease to exist once it has left your vision
monkey experiment - monkeys liked the soft one better
who made the first IQ test?
formula to find out IQ
IQ = mental age / calculated age x 100
hyperactivity affects what percentage of children?
creative process of thinking
search conducted by watching.g the subject
the one that researches have direct control over
cross sectional studies
when people of different ages are studied at one particular time
where the people are followed over a long period of time and checked up on at certain points
the number of amount of something
Used in statistics, similar in structure or organization
Kohlberg theory of moral development
How morality is linked to behavior
punishment of obedience phase
motivation to obey is done from influence of other people
motivation is because law is a higher order
which person believed that children were born a blank slate?
at what age will most children begin to identify which a/some specific best friends
10 years old
which of the following correctly orders Kohlberg's three levels of moral development?
preconventional, conventional, postconventional
trust vs mistrust is Erickson's development stage which occurs?
list piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
_____ is the earliest sound a child makes to communicate?
_____ is the ethical component of personality and provides moral standards.
at approximately what age do children begin communicating through telegraphic speech?
the belief that you are the center of the universe
at what stage of pregnancy are syphilis and rubella at the most dangerous?
relating new information to something familiar is called?
organized, logical thought is part of which of piaget's stages of development
a statistical measure of typical scores for categories of information
the belief that all people are inherently good and are motivated to achieve their full potential.
temperament in infants is measured by monitoring
activity level, irritability, and social responsiveness
who developed the idea of fluid and crystallized intelligence?
the first three weeks of prenatal growth are known as?
What personality trait is NOT typical of divergent thinking?
the process of being able to identify something encountered before
generativoty vs stagnation is erikson's developmental which occurs?
a set of perceptions, ideas or actions which go together
a child who perceives the world only from their own point of view is
What is telegraphic speech?
Telegraphic speech is two- word combinations.
Ex: "Give cookie"
according to Freud, at what age does the oral stage occur?
birth to 1 year old
describe the concrete operational stage of cognitive development
rationality and logical operations and principles are applied to the world.
which is the second stage of maslow's hierarchy of needs?
what are the elements of dialectical perspective?
thesis, antithesis, and synthesis
which defense mechanism occurs when someone hides their feelings and does not acknowledge them?
what is the premack principle
the premack principle uses a desired activity, such as the computer, as a reinforced to make a less desired activity, such as homework, more probable.
Describe parallel play
plays alongside, not with, another; characteristic of TODDLERS, but can occur in other age groups
what type of research is conducted by watching the subject?
what belief was developed by Carol Gilligan
morality of care
which defense mechanism occurs when someone turns a feeling into the exact opposite feeling
what is NOT an effect of syphilis or rubella on the fetus?
in this type of study, a single individual (subject) is intensely studied.
when a participant starts to feel the effects of a drug but is actually taking a sugar pill it is called
describe convergent thinking
methodical, logical, and organized
identity vs role confusion is erikson's development stage which occurs during which age?
who was the father of genetics and inheritance?
which defense mechanism is characterized by turning a feeling into the exact opposite feeling?
dyslexia is caused by a deficiency in understanding what component of language?
which defense mechanism occurs when someone redirects stress into a socially productive activity?
initiative vs guilt is erikson's developmental stage which occurs in
What does ADHD stand for?
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
which is the fourth stage of maslow's hierarchy of needs?
what stage is most directly harmed by teratogens
to help the eye focus, the lens changes it's curves in a process called
in erikson's theory, at what age would one struggle with initiative vs guilt?
what is maslow's first level of needs?
the ability to group objects together on the basis of common features
when a young child feels frustrated or angry they will most likely
throw a temper tantrum
endocrine glands create and release what into the bloodstream?
the brain is part of what system?
central nervous system
according to Freud, at what age does the phallic stage occur?
3-6 years old
what is NOT a sign of aging
hardening of the fontanels
fear of the dark is strong for children of about what age
which style of parent respects individuality, but tries to instill social values?
what is NOT true of reinforces?
it must be tangible
Albert bandura's famous study of baby Albert demonstrated what?
what is maslow's third level of needs?
____ is when a variable from conditioning carries over to another related area
at approximately what age do children begin to babble?
6 months old
Ritalin is a well-known drug used to treat
according to John baby's attachment theory, if a child feels their caregiver is nearby and attentive
they feel confident to explore their surroundings
when a baby repeats things that it has heard it is called
what best describes divergent thinking?
John Bowlby's attachment theory states that infants need to from ____ strong attachments in order to develop normally
personality changes, lack of interest in activities, and change in sleep patterns are the early symptoms of
by what age will both fontanels have hardened into bone?
two years old
what is NOT an example of fluid intelligence?
when something is measurable in number it is
what chromosome patterns would a person with klinefelter's syndrome have?
the premack principle always relies on what?
what describes growth from the spine outward?
which defense mechanism occurs when someone redirects their feelings, positive or negative, towards someone else?
according to company's theory of social development, when does learning occur?
in the zone of proximal development
what are the stages of maslow's hierarchy of needs?
physical needs, safety, belongings and love, esteem, self actualization
classical conditioning describes a link between
a stimulus and a response
Dr Smith studied a brother and sister for three years. this represents
a case study
language development begins at
children that are raised on the kibbutz are used to study the effects of
the process by which a person take material into their mind from an environment is
what is NOT a cause of ADHD
what relates to the study of semantics?
synonyms, morphine, and antonyms
men and women with androgynous personalities will
have very similar personality characteristics
what is the term for areas in a baby's skull where cartilage has not hardened into bone?
what best describes the intelligence level of a dyslexic person?
average or above average
which system is vulnerable for the most time after conception?
central nervous system
what are examples of teratogen
alcohol, tobacco, and HIV
in which stage of kohlberg's theory of moral development is one concerned with avoiding punishment?
children in which stage of development will believe that the divorce of a parent is their fault due to egocentrism?
which of the following describes growth from the head downward?
an infant will look at an object that he prefers for _____ than an object he has no interest in.
a longer time
what is cross-modal perception?
determining or imagining aspects of an object based on information from one area of knowledge.
according to Freud, at what age does the genital stage occur?
the early stages of Alzheimer's disease are often confused with which disorder?
what best describes hypokinetic diseases?
diseases which are either related to or caused by a sedentary lifestyle
when an infant no longer responds to a new toy he is showing
what is NOT an element of vygotsky's theory of social development?
a child must discuss the cultural aspect
an infant startling at a noise is what type of reflex?
what is NOT a characteristic of FAS
_____ theories are based on the idea that our actions are deeply influence by our unconscious
what is NOT a factor of psychosocial health
What does FAS stand for?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
_____ theorists are concerned with the effects of various types of conditioning.
which of the following will cause the appearance of aging in the skin to be accelerated?
exposure to sun
who is a humanist?
which of the following best describes the morphemes in the word unbreakable
1 bound morpheme and 2 free morphemes
from week eight until conception is known as
Erik Erickson developed a theory involving how many stages of development?
the insulating sheath which helps transmit neural impulses is called
what was the visual cliff experiment designed to test?
an infants depth perception
according to Freud's personality theory, which of the following is present at birth?
approximately what percent of children under two are cared for solely by a parent?
what is NOT considered a hypokinetic disease?
social smile appears at how many weeks ?
aggression in four and five year olds is usually _____ related
a parent who makes few demands on a child shows what parenting style
after a person moves to a new area they often hear airplanes flying overhead. after a month or two. They rarely notice them. what is this an example of?
what is the stages of dying?
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
which sections of the brain are affected by Alzheimer's disease?
memory, speech, and personality
when someone assumes they will fail and do not even try to complete a task this is called
according to erikson's stages of development, older individuals are most likely to be concerned with which of the following?
a parent who ignores a child's temper tantrum is hoping to discourage future tantrums by
at approximately what age do children transfer from parallel play to associative play?
3 years old
who coined the term modeling?
an individual with dyslexia will struggle with
hypokinetic diseases are a result of
what is true about convergent thinking
convergent thinking is useful in fields such as math and science
which type of thinking relies most on creativity?
the dialectical perspective focuses on the existence of
the amount of words spoken in a sentence is linked to
mean length of utterance
according to Carol Gilligan, women are more likely to take which ethical perspective
According to Erikson's theory of stages of development, which group of people are generally concerned with generativity vs self-absorption?
middle age adults
what would a score of 7 on the apgar scale indicate?
the baby is well
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