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DSST-Psychology Lifespan Development Final Exam
Terms in this set (150)
What are primary sex characteristics?
internal and external genitalia directly associated with reproduction
What are the primary sex characteristics in females?
-Maturation of eggs in ovaries
-Increase in volume and maturity of fallopian tubes, lining of uterus, and cervix
-Growth of external sex organs
-Menarche: first menstrual period
What are the primary sex characteristics in males?
-Lengthening of penis
-Internal growth of testes
-Begin to produce mature sperm: spermatogenesis
-Spermache: first ejaculation of sperm
What are secondary sex characteristics?
associated with sex hormones, but not reproduction
What are the secondary sex characteristics in both sexes?
-Changes in hair growth (especially pubic area and underarms)
-Changes in muscle to fat ratio
-Skin becomes rougher and oilier
What are the secondary sex characteristics in males?
-increase in muscle tissue
-larger larynx leads to deeper voice
What are the secondary sex characteristics in females?
-increase in fat tissue
-breasts, areoles, and nipples enlarge
In regards to puberty, what is an early maturer?
Early maturers develop faster than average
What is a late maturer?
A late maturer develops more slowly than average.
What are the psychological effects on early maturing girls?
Compared to late or on-time, early maturing girls are at a greater risk for
-Poorer body image
-Higher rates of sexual promiscuity, depression, smoking and drinking
What are the psychological effects on early maturing boys?
Inconsistent findings for boys.
Early maturing boys tend to internalize distress and hostile feelings
Why do these psychosocial effects occur?
Such psychosocial effects may result form a physical, cognitive and emotional mismatch
What is Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development?
Formal operational stage
What does the formal operational stage consist of?
Adolescents and near-adolescents begin to think abstractly and to use hypothetical-deductive reasoning
What is abstract reasoning?
Ability to think about possible situations, ideas, and objects that are not immediately present or obvious
What is hypothetical thinking?
Hypothetical Thinking is at the core of formal thought.
-Requires ability to think about things not immediately observable
-Young Children use trial and error method: The solver attempts different immediate solutions with no systematic plan.
What is hypothetical-deductive reasoning?
Ability to formulate varying solutions in one's mind and to think through the effectiveness of each possible solution
A term used to describe the adolescent perception that one is at the center of the social world
-Describes the adolescent belief that one is special and unique and thus, invulnerable. This is associated with risk taking
-Natural consequence of imaginary audience
Describes the adolescent's assumption that his or her preoccupation with personal appearance and behavior is shared by everyone else.
Storm and stress view of adolescent
Phase used to emphasize the volatility of this stage
-Manifests in parent-adolescent conflict
-Unstable emotions and behavior
What is the fifth stage of Erikson's psychosocial development?
Identity versus role confusion
-Adolescent must adopt a coherent and integrated sense of self
an individual's understanding of self in relation to his or her social context
How do adolescents establish a coherent identity?
Adolescents weigh information from parents, family members, teachers, friends, media and self to develop a coherent identity
entails an evaluation of possible choices concerning vocation, relationships and personal self-understanding
An adolescents inability to define an identity, resulting in a lack of direction and focus
-Uncertain about who they are, what they want, where they are going
-Role confusion can manifest itself as adopting the identity of someone else → being Beyonce
While most teens eventually forge a sense of identity, some experience role confusion.
Marcia's Identity crisis
Four distinct identity statuses determined through
exploration and commitment
positive search for options
conscious choice about a particular aspect of identity
-Component of identity that involves a complex interaction between different elements of ethnic identity and external forces
-Depends largely on society
-Must resolve positive and negative views about one's own ethnic group
Ethnic identity focuses on
acculturation - The process of minority culture adopting the values of the majority culture
self-concept and self-esteem
Research about ethnic identity found?
Bicultural identity is healthier than disowning either culture
What are the stages of ethnic minority identity formation?
Stage 1:Unexamined ethnic identity
Stage 2: Ethnic identity search/moratorium
Stage 3: Ethnic Identity achievement
Stage 1: Unexamined Ethnic Identity
Ethnicity remains unexamined by the adolescent, who may accept without question the values and opinions of the majority culture. Such unquestioned acceptance is similar to Marcia's identity foreclosure. Identity diffusion may also characterize this stage, if the adolescent shows a lack of interest in exploring his or her ethnic identity.
Stage 2: Ethnic identity search/moratorium
Ethnic identity exploration is typically triggered by an experience of prejudice or discrimination. This stage is consistent with Erikson's identity crisis and Marcia's moratorium status
Stage 3: Ethnic identity achievement
Ethnic identity achievement is obtained after the adolescent resolves uncertainties and develops a secure sense of his or her ethnic background.
a person's perception of his or her gender
What creates a more flexible attitude on gender identity?
Media, peer relations and parental role models create a more flexible attitude on gender identity
the shift toward stereotypical, gender-specific behaviors
-Results from numerous social and environmental factors
-Seen as a fluid and changing form of identity rather than a static trait
-Adolescents must distinguish behavior from thoughts/fantasies
-Sexual orientation may not be dichotomous
process by which a homosexual person makes his/her orientation known to self, friends and family
-Entails a series of personal and social steps
-Often has a major impact on one's relationships and self-concept
-Adolescents are competent at identifying emotions in themselves an in others
-Emotion Regulation focuses on what is done after the emotions are realized
An emotional regulation strategy that inhibits one's emotional response without reducing the level of emotion
-Negative interpretation of behavior and suppression of the associated emotions; a false "i dont care attitude"
Example: says hello to classmate but is ignored. The next day their classmates says hello but they decided to ignore them---PETTY BITCH
The ability to reevaluate the cause of an emotional state and mediate the response
-Appears to be psychologically healthier
-Situational attribution and a reduction in negative feelings
-Example: says hello to classmate but classmates ignores them. However the next day they say hello again and the classmates responds back
-Emerging adults progress toward independence and responsibility from 17 to 27.
-Individual variation in paths
-SES, gender, and race affect when one takes on adult roles
a stage of the lifespan characterized by commitments to adult roles and responsibilities
-Social roles include employee, homeowner, committed partner, parent
-Majority of people have entered young adulthood by 30
a mental disorder or mental illness that is a pattern of feelings, thoughts or behaviors that cause distress or disability
-Psychiatric disorder are common during emerging adulthood
What are the most common psychiatric disorders?
-Substance abuse disorders
-Impulse control disorders
Health behaviors: substance use vs. abuse
-Many emerging adults experiment with drugs
-Most people who use substances do not go on to have recurring problems
-When substance use interferes with a person's functioning he/she has developed a substance use disorder
Criteria for substance abuse disorder
-Taking the substance in increasing amounts
-Wanting but not managing to cut down
-Spending a lot of time getting, using, or recovering
-Cravings and urges to use the substance
-Not meeting your responsibilities at home or work
-Using despite it causing problems in your relationships
-Giving up important activities because of substance use
-Using substances even when it puts you in danger
-Continuing to use, even when you know you have a physical or psychological problem
-Needing more of the substance to get the effect you want (tolerance)
-Development of withdrawal symptoms that can be relieved by taking more of the substance
a combination of emotional attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual
-Personality plays a role in determining how a young person will experience and adjust to adulthood.
Big five or the five factor model
Trait theorists believe in five basic underlying traits that combine in different ways to determine personality
five personality traits that combine to express personality: openness to experience, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness
Meaningful friendships predict better adjustment to adulthood
Friendships networks vary in quality and number
Fehr's (1996) four key factors in developing long-term friendships
Physical attractiveness, proximity, frequent exposure and exclusionary criteria
people select friends with similar levels of attractiveness
people choose friends who are geographically near
people are more likely to be friends when they spend time together
people who do not share the same values are unlikely to become friends.
-Exclusionary criteria often include religious, racial, political, and/or lifestyle factors, such as smoking
Women are more likely to
-Have more friends than men
-See friendship as a process of support and emotional connection
Men are more likely to
-Engage in active gatherings with friends
-Keep physical and emotional distance
Research on gender and friendships
-Male-female friendships are more likely to occur than in the past
-Men report having female friends help their romantic relationships with other women
-Women report having male friends require less maintenance than their boyfriends
-Both men and women report
cross -gender friendships are fulfillling and have educational benefits & Cross-gender friendships may cause conflict with romantic partners
Different relationships in young adulthood?
Sexual behaviors that involve mutual consent and mutual agreement that no relationship commitment is expected
-Normative in emerging adulthood
-Relatively common in college students
-Ambiguous term for a wide range of sexual behavior
-FWB (friends with benefits)-hooking up repeatedly
Gender and hookups
Men and women are equally likely to hook up
-Social perceptions differ: Males with multiple sex partners are seen more positively
Assuming that heterosexual behavior is the norm and that men and women fall into traditional sex roles in life
-Gay, lesbian, transsexuxal and transgender emerging adults face different odds in their quest to hook up
College hookup trends
-White students are more likely to hook up than all other races
-Students with more money are more likely
-Parents marital status is not a predictor
-Religion is not a predictor
-Favorable views of hooking up and drinking are more likely
Means romantic love
-Love that involves sexual relations with a partner
-Different from love felt for friend or children
Love doesn't mean the same thing to all emerging and young adults
-people explore different types of love
a process throughout the animal kingdom in which species seek out similar partners as mates
-Historically, men have initiated dates
-Today, dating is less likely to conform to tradition
Important factors in dating
-we seek partners similar to ourselves (aka assortative mating)
-Sharing values, education, personality traits, religions, and ethnicity
An expectation about whether intimate relationships satisfy or deny emotional and psychological needs
-elicits a social acceptance from many people, who feel marriage signifies that a young person has joined the ranks of adults who have committed to sharing a life with another
-It also affords many social, legal and financial awards
Married people tend to
-are better off economically
Aspects of a strong relationship
Separateness, Equality, and Openness in order to succeed
A dimension of self in which individuals in a relationship maintain their boundaries and self esteem. The relationship does not define their identity
A reciprocal acceptance of each person's worth in the relationship regardless of income differences, age or traditional gender roles
Openness in order to succeed
A clear, honest, and relevant process of communication. An interactive sharing of ideas without fear of emotional consequences
What are the trends for parenthood?
-Young adults wait longer to have their first child
-First birth: average age of new mothers is 25.8
-About half of children are born to married couples
Transition to parenthood
Transition to childcare involves a serious adjustment
-Increased demands on parents' time, finances, and ability to function on less sleep
-New parents feel stressed when mothers return to work
-Negotiate new division of household labor
Tests the strength of the couple's relationship
-Already fragile relationships experiences increased stress
-The TTP ushers is a point of high conflict
Stress diathesis model
A model that suggest abnormal behavior results from a combination of genetic predisposition towards psychopathology and environmental stressors
-The absence of genetic risk protects individuals from psychopathology. An interaction between a genetic vulnerability and environmental stress exposure significantly increases risk for severe psychopathology
physical signs of aging
the number of years a person is expected to live
highest boundary or limit of a particular species
Diseases in older age
-Skeletal System- related
Cardiovascular changes coincide with nervous system declines
Significant increase in cardiovascular disease develops from decreased flexibility in blood vessels and less efficiency of the heart muscle to pump blood
Cardiovascular system declines with age leading to:
-Changes in resting blood pressure
-Increases in cholesterol
-Diminishing lung capacity
The Skeletal System
Bone loss weakens the bones:
-Increases risk of brittleness and fracture
-Leads to osteroporosis
refers to pain in the bones, ligaments, tendons, or muscles not caused by accidents
two types: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Classified as an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune system causes an inflammation of tissue around joints
Type of arthritis in which the skeletal joints and tissue wear down over time
causes observable changes in mobility and posture
-Loss of muscle tissue as a natural part of the aging process
-Strength and flexibility decrease
-Performing activities of daily living requires reasonable strength in muscular and skeletal systems
-Activities of daily living includes eating, dressing, elimination and more
Programmed theory of aging
A theory that aging occurs because of some predetermined internal or external chemical process built in to cells that cause deterioration over time
-Aging and death are norms
Hayflick's Limit and telomeres
The number of times a cell can divide during the lifespan based on a predetermined number of cell divisions
Due to telemomere shortening eventually leading to the cell to stop dividing
Process of cell division
-Showed that cell division creates subtle structural change
-Observed that cells divide normally about 60 times before declining
-This supports programmed cell death theory
Error theories of aging
A theory that aging occurs because of environmental forces such as disease that affect the function of cells, causing deterioration
-Aging and death occur because of "error" that cause the body to shut down
Wear and Tear Theory
A theory that suggest the human body ages as a result of use, overuse and environmental stressors
-The longer we live, the more likely our tissues will wear down and eventually die
Often compares the human body to a car:
-Body decreases in efficiency over time
-Body is made up of parts
-Body increase in part failure the more each part is used
Doesn't consider self-repair
-But assumes the body loses the ability to engage in self-repair
Includes sensory, working memory, and long-term memory
Which groups show less cognitive function decline?
-Better quality of life
-Higher education attainment
-Socially engaged older adults
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT)
a feeling you know a piece of info but you cannot recall it
-Occurs more frequently in older adults than in adolescents and younger adults
Types of memory that can deteroriate
Working memory (short term) memory shows the largest decline in old age
Long term memory declines at a slower less drastic pace:
-Episodic memory - memory of specific events is most likely to deteriorate with age
the ability to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information in the environment
Involves the ability to focus on relevant stimuli in the presence of irrelevant stimuli
-Older people have problems with inhibitory control
-Visual systems decline→ selective attention is affected
a loss of cognitive function, which may include language impairment, memory loss, and the inability to recognize familiar people or objects
-Affects thinking as well as behavior and psychological function
Noncognitive symptoms are called BPSD (Behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia)
-Includes changes in mood and personality, apathy, irritability, depression, and aggressive behavior
caused by restricted blood supply to the brain (stroke)
-2nd most common form
-Accounts for ~20% of cases
-Symptoms: memory impairment, loss of communication skills, gradual deterioration of ability to carry out ADLs
Lewy Body Dementia (LBD)
Results in visual hallucinations, delusions, and increased rates of falling
-No cure for LBD
progressive form of dementia in which plaques and tangles form in the brain, resulting in increasing memory loss and eventually death
-2-5 million people suffer from AD
-Age of onset: over 60 years
-Irreversible and progressive
What is Erikson's final stage of developement?
ego integrity versus despair
-Individuals face the last of eight psychosocial crisis: did i lead a meaningful life?
the accrued assurance of the ability to find order, meaning, and integration in one's life
-Person's life has had complex social relationships, clear personal identity, and intimacy.
-Person accepts his/her life, choices, and social connections.
Inability to integrate one's life leads to despair.
-Feeling that one's life lacks meaning and significance
-Results from lack of reflection and unfulfilled social interactions
During ego integrity vs despair stage,
Feelings are complicated by fear of an uncertain future and inevitability of approaching death
-Person is typically bitter and blames society for creating problems.
-Anger toward the self
an ongoing process of surveying, observing, and summarizing the themes that characterize one's life in retrospect
-Universal, normal part of aging
-Therapeutic technique to increase self-understanding and integration of self
-Social interaction and physical activity indicate successful aging
-Physical, cognitive, and sociocultural activity in late adulthood leads to successful aging.
-Some research links continued social interaction and positive mental and physical health.
-Other research has found that individuals must perceive activities as positive for them to be linked to well-being.
It is normal and healthy for individuals to disengage from previous roles. and they focus energy on personal development instead
-Older adults reduce their involvement with society.
-Society accepts and encourages a reduction in active social engagement.
-Theory assumes individuals of the same relative age behave in similar ways.
A form of prejudice and discrimination against the elderly in the workplace, in public interactions, or at home
-Roots of ageism stem from negative, unfounded beliefs about older individuals.
Older adults are often characterized as:
-Adding little value to society
-Bad drivers, etc.
Aging and religion
Religion and spirituality appear to play a greater role:
-More likely to attend church
-Purchase more religious and spiritual literature
-Attend more workshops
-Demonstrate more religious interest
Strong religious involvement has....
numerous social benefits:
-Provides vital social connections
-Overall sense of belonging
-Gives senior citizens a chance to participate in regular activities
Religion is correlated with...
positive mental outcomes:
-Experience fewer episodes of depression
-Feel fulfilled and connected to loved ones
-Increases sense of well-being, especially in women
-Help people face death and accept losses
a state encompassing different dimensions of wellness including autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance.
-Important in the lives of older adults from late 60s to 90s
Emotional well being can..
-Protect against physical declines
-Help maintain attention and cognition
-Facilitate coping with adversity
references a state of living a life within optimal range of functioning
-characterized by goodness, generativity, growth and resilience
Characteristics of adults characterized as flourishing
-Meaning and purpose
-Positive emotional life
-Contributing to the lives of others:
Meaning and purpose consists of
They routinely experience optimism, hope, and gratitude when they make a positive impact on others through their work and legacy.
Positive emotional life consists of
When they experience challenge, adversity or trauma, they respond with hope and optimism.
Contributing to the lives of others consist of
Helping others leads to a sense of well-being in themselves and others
They have a sense that they have done the best work they could do with their abilities and resources
It is the opposite of flourishing.
It refers to living a life that is hollow and empty.
In most cases, the line between life and death is clear. Life ends when all of a person's vital functions stop permanently.
-Vast majority of deaths occur late in the lifespan
-Technological advances have changed our ability to monitor and sustain life, thereby complicating the definition of death
the concept that once something or someone dies one cannot come back
the concept that death ends all functions such as talking, breathing, and social interaction
the concept that everything dies and that death is inevitable
the concept that everything dies due to some type of biological process
Late adolescents understanding of death
They are more socially mature so they understand death more realistically
-Understand the consequences of their own death on their loved ones
-Better able to understand and regulate emotional reactions
Older adults understanding of death
Reality of death's finality becomes salient
-Death anxiety is significantly lower in older adults than in younger adults
-Older adults tend to choose to talk about death and think about death more
-Less fearful on average than younger adults
-Realistic fear of death is a constant part of daily life
What factors affect one's attitude about death?
-Stability of family
Patient's Bill of Rights
A public statement suggesting patients be given the right to choose what actions should be taken in the event of a diagnosis of terminal illness as well as all information pertaining to end-of-life decisions
the practice of ending person's life to relieve pain or suffering
-Done with consent (voluntary euthanasia) or done where consent is not possible (involuntary euthanasia)
the practice of either withholding or withdrawing treatment from a terminally ill person, thus ending life through natural causes
the practice of directly affecting cause of death through outside sources such as lethal drugs
When serious illness progresses and the individual has a life expectancy of 6 months or less
-May be provided in a hospital or nursing home (most often received in the patient's own home)
-Gives persons with terminal illnesses care focused on reducing pain, suffering, and discomfort
-Provides spiritual, emotional, and psychological counseling
refers to the general process of losing a loved one.
-Involves the customs, rituals, and personal transformations that occur after a loved one dies
-May vary culturally
-May vary at different times during the lifespan
refers to the specific behaviors involved in bereavement.
-Religion and culture often influence the time of mourning
-Eastern view: believe in a continued relationship with the decreased
-Western view: long-term continuation of a bond is pathological(i.e. obsessive)
-Different cultural views impact stress and coping
Kubler-Ross created the
five stages of dying:
1st stage - Denial
The individual does not acknowledge the reality of the information. There is no emotion. Attempts at communication are useless.
2nd stage - Anger
The anger may be directed at a doctor, loved one, or self.
3rd stage - Bargaining
The individual tries to find a way to make the terminal disease go away, such as through religion or alternative medicines.
4th stage - Depression
The individual begins to understand the gravity of the information and feels deeply upset.
5th stage - Acceptance
As the intensity of other emotions gradually fades, a comfortable understanding of what is about to happen emerges. This acceptance typically is not joyful, however; it is simply a state devoid of negative emotion.
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