How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

70 terms

Ancient Rome

STUDY
PLAY
Rome
Capital and largest city of Italy
Myth
A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.
Etruscans
People from Etruria (North of Rome) that ruled early Rome until 509 BC
Latins
An ancient people living in the region of Latium, Italy
Palatine
One of the seven hills in ancient Rome
Cuniculus
A trench system invented by the Etruscans to both drain and irrigate the land
Arch
Curved architecture for spanning an opening and supporting the weight above it
Aqueduct
Bridgelike stone structure that carries water over long distances
Gladiators
Trained fighters, usually slaves, who fought in arenas as entertainment
Greco-Roman Art
having the characteristics of Roman art with a strong Greek influence
Republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Patricians
Powerful wealthy landowners who controlled Roman government and society
Plebeians
Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
Senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up 300 Patricians
Consul
One of two elected officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic
Veto
To vote against or block proposals of government
Tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights
Empire
A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
Civil War
A war between people of the same country
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean
Stylus
A pointed tool for writing or drawing or engraving
Villa
A large country house in ancient Rome consisting of residential quarters and farm buildings around a courtyard
Christianity
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Jesus Christ
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Him to be Son of God
Messiah
Hebrew for "anointed." This is used in reference to Jesus because he accomplished perfectly the divine mission of priest, prophet, and king, signified by his being anointed as Christ
Prefect
A chief officer or military governor
Gospels
Four books in the New Testament that tell the story of Christ's life and teachings
Baptized
A ritual in which someone is blessed with holy water to join the Christians
Disciples
Followers of Jesus who helped spread his religious teachings
Parable
A simple story that illustrates a moral or religious lesson
Missionary
Someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program
Legion
A large military unit
Dictator
A ruler who has complete power over a country
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to establish control over other countries land and people
Latifundia
Huge estates owned by wealthy families
Census
A periodic and official count of a country's population
Satirize
Make fun of with sarcasm
Mosaic
Art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
Engineering
The application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines
Apostles
12 disciples of Jesus, chosen to help Him in his teaching
Martyrs
People who are willing to die for their religous beliefs
Clergy
The body of people, such as priests, who perform the sacred functions of a church
Bishop
Christian church official ranking over the priests with authority over a local area, or diocese
Patriarchs
Title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches
Popes
Title given to the heads of the Roman Catholic Church
Heresy
An opinion contrary to popular belief or official religious teachings
Diocese
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
Inflation
The rapid increase in prices
Constantinople
A place previously known as Byzantium which became the capitol of the Roman Empire or "new Rome"
Huns
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
Mercenary
A soldier who fights for any country or group that will pay him
Julius Caesar
Made himself an absolute ruler of Rome; Attempted to make reforms; Assassinated on March 15 44BC
Augustus
Previously named Octavian; First ruler of the Pax Romana
Pax Romana
Period of "Roman Peace"
Marcus Aurelius
Last great emperor of the Pax Romana
Diocletian
Divided the Roman Empire into two parts: Eastern and Western
Constantine
Moved Roman power to a new capital at Constantinople; Granted toleration to Christians through the Edict of Milan
Priests
Leaders of the Christian communities who formed the majority of the church clergy
Ptolemy
Ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Hadrian
Emperor during the pax Romana who supported the arts and built a huge wall around Rome's border and encouraged frontier peoples to enter the army
Marc Antony
Ruled the east while Octavian ruled the west; Defeated by Octavian; Committed suicide with Cleopatra after seeing no escape
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
Brother tribunes who attempted to introduce land and citizenship reform under the late Roman republic; Both were killed by order of the Senate
Jupiter
Roman God similar to the Greek God Zeus
Juno
Roman Goddess similar to the Greek Goddess Hera
Neptune
Roman God similar to the Greek God Poseidan
Romulus and Remus
Twin brothers who according to myth founded the city of Rome in 753 BC
Augustine
Influential church father and theologian; Bishop of Hippo in North Africa; Combined Christian doctrine with Greco-Roman learning
Paul
A Jew from Asia Minor originally named Saul; Initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, after receiving a revelation he became a Christian and was the most influential in spreading Christianity
New Testament
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and of his early followers