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Terms in this set (90)
what is the liquid part of blood or blood minus its formed elements?
what does blood plasma consist of?
water with many substances dissolved in it.
what chemicals needed by cells to stay alive has been brought to them by blood?
food oxygen salts
what are dissolved in the plasma?
food and salts
what is most of the oxygen in the blood carried as?
wastes that cells must get rid of are dissolved where? and transported to what?
dissolved in plasma and transported to the excretory organs.
what is the most abundant type of solute in the plasma
a group of plasma proteins
what do plasma proteins include
albumins and globulins, and fibrinogen.
what are albumins?
they help thicken and maintain the blood volume
what are the antibiodies that help protect us from infections?
what is necessary for blood clotting?
what is blood serum?
plasma minus its clotting factors such as fibrinogen.
how is serum obtained from the whole blood ?
by allowing it to clot in the bottom of a tube and then pouring off the liquid serum.
serum still contains antibodies, so hat can it be used for?
to treat patients that have a need for specific antibodies
the amount of bloood depends on
how big a person is and whether they are male or female.
a big person has more blood than
a small person
who has more blood ? man or woman
most adults have between how many liters of blood
4 to 6
blood accounts for what percent of the body
7 to 9 percent
the volume of the plasma part of blood is usually more than
half the volume of whole blood
There are 3 main types and several subtypes of formed elements: what are they?
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
What are three granulocytes
1) neutrophils, 2) eosinophils 3) basophils
what are the types of nongranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes
What are thrombocytes?
also called a platelet, plays a role in blood clotting
what are albumins
thicken and maintain blood volume
what are globulins?
make antibodies that protect against infection
what are the two kinds of connective tissue?
myeloid tissue and lymphatic tissue
which tissue makes cells for the body?
myeloid tissue is better known as what?
red bone marrow.
where is myeloid tissue located in adult?
sternum, ribs, and hipbones
a few other bones also contain myeloid tissue, which are they?
vertebrae clavicles and cranial bones.
what does red bone marrow form?
all types of blood cells except some lymphocytes and monocytes.
most of others are formed by which kind of tissue?
lymphatic, which consists of lymph nodes thymus and spleen
Red blood cells are "disc shaped" and the cell is also caved in on both sides. what do red blood cells lack?
what does the total surface area of the bodys red blood cells provides an area larger than a football field for the exchange of what?
carbon dioxide and oxygen between blood and body cells.
what are the essential functions of red blood cells
help transport carbon dioxide, and oxygen.
what is carbon dioxide
a harmful waste produced by energy producing processes of all living cells. it must be carried away from cells and to the lungs for disposal into the external environment.
what is the function of red blood cells transporting oxygen?
red blood cells transport oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body.
A red pigment called hemoglobin in the red blood cells unites with oxygen to form
for what does the combined oxyhemoglobin complex make possible?
the efficient transport of large quantities of oxygen to the lungs.
Hemoglobin can also carry a small proportion of the carbon dioxide carried by blood forming what?
this term is used to describe the inability of blood to carry sufficient oxygen to the body cells.
what do anemias result from?
inadequate numbers of red blood cells or deficiency of hemoglobin.
anemia can occur when?
if the hemoglobin in red blood cells is inadequate, even if adequate numbers of red blood cells are present.
this type of anemia results from a decrease in the number of red blood cells caused by hemorrhage resulting from bleeding ulcers or accidents?
this type of anemia is characterized by reduction in red blood cell numbers following destruction of blood forming elements in bone marrow.
what causes aplastic anemia
exposure to certain toxic chemicals, high dose irradiation ( xrays) certain drugs and chemotherapy agents.
this type of anemia is used to describe a deficiency of red blood cells that results from a failure of stomach lining to produce " intrinsic factor" ( the substance that allows vitamin b12 to be absorbed)
because red blood cell production requires adequate blood levels of b12, what happens to red cell numbers?
they decrease in the absence of intrinsic factor even if the vitamin is present in the diet., therefore b12 injections are required in pernicious anemia to maintain normal red blood cell production
this is a severe and fatal hereditary disease caused by abnormal type of hemoglobin
sick cell anemia
what happens to a person who inherits only one defective gene?
they develop a form of sickle cell anemia called sickel cell trait.
what happens in sickle cell trait?
red blood cells contain a small amount of a type of hemoglobin that is less oluble than normal. it forms solid crystals when the blood oxygen is low causing red blood celll distortion.
if two defective genes of sickle cell trait are inherited,. what happens?
the more of the defective hemoglobin is produced and the distortion of red blood cells becomes severe.
what is a critical component of the hemoglobin molecule? and why?
iron. - without it, the body cannot manufacture enough hemoglobin.
without iron, the body cannot manufacture hemoglobin, what does this cuase?
iron deficiency anemia
if red blood cell numbers fall below normal , the body starts a chain reaction resulting in
less hemoglobin, less oxygen transported to cells, slower breakdown and use of nutrients by cells and less energy produced by cells. this causes tiredness.
reticulocytes develop into what?
red bloood cells
these are considered 4.5 -5 mil per mm of blood
red blood cells
these are considered 5-10,000 per mm of blood
white blood cells
these are considered 300,000 per mm of blood
this condition results if bone marrow produces an excess of red blood cells
polycythemia - blood too thick to flow properly
this is a measure of the total blood volume made up by the red blood cells
hematocrit test is a medical test in which centrifuge is used to separate whole blood into formed elemetns and liquid fraction. - the buffy coat is then considered what?
white blood cell and platelet fraction, normal white blood cell count is about 45%
one cause of erroneous test results is
what happens in dehydration
total blood volume is decreased and RBC make up a greater proporton of the total although their numbers have not increased.
white blood cellls ( leukocytes) what are there main function:
differential white blood cell count reveals what?
proportions of each type of white blood cell
what is leukopenia?
abnormally low white blood cell count
what is leukocytosis?
abnormally high white blood cell count
what two carry out phagocytosis?
neutrophils and monocytes
whichlymphocyte produce antibiodies ?
which kind of lymphocyte directly attack foreign cells
what do eosinophils function as?
protect against parasitic irritants that cause allergies
what do basophils produce?
heparin ( inhibits clotting)
white blood cell disorders: this type of disorder involves cancer, elevated blood cell count, and cells not functioning properly
platelets play an essential role in
cloting factors released at the injury site produce what?
prothrombin activator and calcium convert what to what?
prothrombin to thrombin
what triggers the formation of fibrin which traps white blood cells to form a clot?
: antigen -
substance that can activate immune system
substance made by body in response to stimulation by an antigen
type A blood
type A- self antigens in red blood cells - uses anti-B type antibodies in plasma
type B blood
type b- self antigens in red blood cells, uses anti-A type antibodies in plasma
type AB blood -
type A and type B self antigens in red blood cells, no anti-A or anti B antibodies in plasma
Type O blood
no type A or type B self antigens in red blood cells. uses both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in plasma
RH System:rh positive blood
rh factor antigen present in red blood cells
rh negative blood
no rh factor present in red blood cells, no anti rh antibodies present naturally in plasma., anti rh antibodies appear in the plasma of rh negative persons if rh positive red blood cells have been introduced into their bodies.
Type O Rh - negative is
universal donor blood
type AB rh-positive
universal recipient blood
occurs when rh negative mother carries a second rh positive fetus caused by mothers rh antibodies reacting with babys rh positive cells.
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