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Alfred Thayer Mahan

a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890

Valeriano Weyler

Spanish governor in charge of suppressing the Cuban revolution, 1896-1898; his brutal "reconcentration" tactics earned him the nickname of the "Butcher" in America's yellow press.

Dupuy de Lóme

He was a Spanish minister in Washington who wrote a private letter to a friend concerning President McKinley (called him basically usless and indecisive) The discovery of his letter strained Spanish-American relations, which helped initiate the Spanish-American War.

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

George Dewey

a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)

William Howard Taft

27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930)


policy of moving Cubans to detention camps so that they could not aid rebels


extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy


A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

Guerrilla Warfare

military strategy in which an army does not engage the enemy head on

Spheres of Influence

areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)

Yellow Peril

A color metaphor for race that originated in the late nineteenth century with immigration of Chinese laborers to various Western countries, notably the United States.

Pan-American Conference

this was an international organization that dealt with trade; organized by james blaine; created to encourage cooperation and trust with the manufacturers

Teller Amendment

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war

Treaty of Paris (1898)

The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.

Anti-Imperialist League

objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900

Philippine insurrection

before the Philippines was annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filippinos. eventually we entered into a war with the Philippines.

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Rough Riders

volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War

Big-Stick Rebellion

Slogan to describe Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Panama Canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Gentlemen's Agreement

Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them

Great White Fleet

1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."

Russo-Japanese War

Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.


someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program

White Man's Burden

belief that whites had to take care of blacks and other poor people.


Cuban (maybe Philippians) insurgents who used a scorched earth policy to try to drive out the Spanish landlords


the doctrine of expanding the territory or the economic influence of a country

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